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Brain Structures and Functions Chart I
Terms in this set (20)
See map! (what does this even mean? it's the largest part of the brain, and it controls thinking, reasoning, and memory)
Relay station for olfaction, may add the element of smell to memories.
Fiber tracts in the midbrain connecting the pons below with the cerebrum above
"Bridge" consisting primarily of motor and sensory fiber tracts connecting the brain with lower CNS centers. It also serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain. Its functions include arousal, controlling autonomic functions, relaying sensory information between the cerebrum and cerebellum, and sleep
The lowest brain stem region, composed primarily of fiber tracts. Contains the decussation of pyramids on its anterior surface. Also houses many vital autonomic centers involved in the control of heart rate, respiratory rhythm, and blood pressure as well as involuntary centers involved in vomiting, swallowing, and so on.
Projects dorsally from under the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. Has two major hemispheres and a convoluted surface. Also has an outer cortex made up of gray matter with an inner region of white matter. The cerebellum is concerned with unconscious coordination of skeletal muscle activity and control of balance and equilibrium. Remains constantly aware of the position and state of tension of the various body parts.
Located on the posterior aspect of the midbrain. The two superior prominences are the superior colliculi (visual reflex centers); the two smaller inferior prominences are the inferior colliculi (auditory reflex centers).
The major commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres
A bandlike fiber tract concerned with olfaction as well as limbic system functions
Separates the lateral ventricles of the cerebral hemispheres
Important subcortical motor nuclei and part of the extrapryonridal system. Are involved in regulating voluntary motor activities, eye movement, and cognition. The most important of them are the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus (which is composed of the putamen and globus pallidus nuclei)
Chambers formed by the enlargement of the central canal of the neural tube, which remains continuous throughout the brain and cord. The CSF circulates from the two lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemispheres into the third ventricle via the interventricular foramina, and then through the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain into the fourth ventricle of the hindbrain. Some of the fluid reaching the fourth ventricle continues down the central canal of the spinal cord, but the bulk of it circulates into the subarachnoid space, exiting through the three foramina in the walls of the fourth ventricle. The fluid returns to the blood in the dural sinuses via the arachnoid villi.
Located at the tip of the caudate nucleus. Part of the limbic system. Important in the processing and memory of emotional responses.
Consists of two large lobes of gray matter that laterally enclose the shallow third ventricle of the brain. Is the major integrating and relay station for sensory impulses passing upward to the cortical sensory areas for localization and interpretation.
Makes up the floor and the inferolateral walls of the third ventricle. Is an important autonomic center involved in regulation of body temperature, water balance, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in many other activities and drives (sex, hunger, thirst). Influences the pituitary gland.
A slender stalk attaching the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus/The most important gland of the endocrine system. Controlled by the hypothalamus. Regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Small cone-shaped gland located in the roof of the third ventricle of the brain. Produces melatonin. Known to play a role in the biological rhythms (particularly mating and migratory behavior) of other animals. In humans, melatonin appears to exert some inhibitory effect on the reproductive system that prevents precocious sexual maturation.
Knotlike collections of capillaries within each ventricle. Forms the cerebrospinal fluid.
Network of cells within the brainstem. Filters sensory information and is involved in arousal, alertness, consciousness.
Deep within the temporal lobe along its medial surface; houses the olfactory area
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