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Factors that led to emergence of sociology

intellectual, economic, social, political

Examples of intellectual factors that led to the emergence of sociology

The Enlightenment, The Counter-Enlightenment, Differentiation of social sciences within the university

Examples of economic factors that led to the emergence of sociology

Expansion of commerce and markets, industrialization

Examples of social factors that led to the emergence of sociology

Urbanization, decline of local communities

Examples of political factors that led to the emergence of sociology

Rise of bureaucratic nation states, decline in the power of the Church, feminism

The purpose of the emergence of sociology

an attempt to explain the social "chaos"

When did the changes in Europe become the most dramatic?

19th century

The Counter-Enlightenment perspective created the belief that...

the institutional and collective perspective must be considered

The Enlightenment thinking started the interest in

assessing social change scientifically based

Sociology draws from the social science disciplines:

history, economics, psychology, anthropolgy

Auguste Compte's evolution of world views and societies:

theological --> metaphysical--> scientific/positive

The individual that coined the term sociology

Auguste Compte

Auguste Compte refers to sociology as:

The Queen of the Sciences

Harriet Martineau developed the principles and methods of...

empirical social research

Marx's academic career can be described as

one of frustration

Marx's collision with authorities resulted in

his expulsion from multiple cities

Marx settled in...


Marx's economic status:

middle class then poverty

In his later years, Marx was a leader of

international worker's movement

"Historical materialism" means

History progresses and change is driven by conflicts to "production" (i.e., economic or material conflict)

Marx agrees with Hegel that...

conflict is the basis of social change

Marx's disagreement with Hegel

Hegel--a conflict of ideas
Marx--a conflict over the material and production

Weber's view on the forces of social change

real material forces and ideas


owners: own the means of production

Another word for Bourgeoisie


Results of bourgeoisie

reduced the family relation to a mere money relation

The reduction of family relation resulted in

urbanization and the increasing wealth of owners

Bourgeoisie exploit

the world market and natural resources


working class

Pre-revolutionary class


Alienation of labor

the proletarians has lost all individual character and all charm for the workman; becomes an appendage of the machine; most simple and monotonous skill that is required by him

Commodification of labor

selling your labor to someone else


people produce things for their exchange value

Marx's view of urbanization

bourgeoisie has agglomerated populations and centralized means of production

Marx's view of family

capitalism distorts family relationships and dehumanizes the family relation

Marx's view of globalization

globalization is an attempt to find raw materials and markets

The spread of capitalism is...


Social super structure & economic base

All social institutions ("super structure") arise from--and for the sake of--the material/economic base, which includes religion and education

Future of capitalism

foresees economic globalization (in an attempt to find raw materials and markets): the movement of capitalism throughout the world; communism will naturally arise from capitalism

Characteristics of economics in a feudalist state

"Use" labor, products have "use value", personal relationship

Characteristics of economics in a communist state

class consciousness, revolution, proletarian control over means of production

exchange value

products are produced for exchange value

exchange value is associated with


alienated labor

products are produced for exchange value

alienated labor is associated with


eras of history


Marx's economic determinism

the theory which attributes primary to the economic structure over politics in the development of human history; economic laws determine the course of history

Weber's class status

upper middle class

Weber's nationality


Weber's family situation and its effect

his parents fought and he was unhappy at home

Weber's academic career can be classified as

one of success

Weber's wife

Marianne, a writer

Weber's spending habits

spent a lot of money

Weber's outlook on life and health

bouts of depression and pessimistic outlook

Weber's religion


Hegel's view on what drives change

the conflict of ideas drives changes in material realities

Marx's view on what drives change

material conflicts drive changes in ideas

Weber's view on what drives change

it can go in both directions--the conflict of ideas can drive changes in material realities and material conflicts can drive changes in ideas

Weber believes that capitalism arose from

the protestant work ethic

Calvinist protestant worked because

it was their duty to God; they hoped to prove that they were God's chosen

"worldly asceticism"

doing things on earth but with a focus on heaven

Calvinists became the


According to Weber religion created


Weber believes the economic system was created by

the world of ideas and culture

Marx believes the economic system is driven by

class conflict

Weber's three types of conflict

class, status, party

Class (Weber)

those with the same possession of goods or opportunities to make money

Four classes

capitalists, property owners, those who hold patents/copy rights, etc, and laborers

In order for a class to take action, the class members must

recognize their economic situation and its consequences

Weber's response to Marx's believing that the proletariat will gain "class consciousness" and rise up in revolt

Not necessarily


a group whose members share a characteristic or lifestyle that is honored or dishonored in society

Is status linked to class?

maybe or maybe not

If economic circumstances are stable, then _______ will drive social realities.



a self-selected group that seeks to influence a particular social issue or action

The aim of a party is

causing a particular action

Who believes people should be scientific and empirical in examining society, looking at real things and being objective? (Enlightenment thinking)


Who believes people can't examine people like their chemicals, people need the "subjectivity" of understanding how the people we are studying experience their situation? (sociological approach)



an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action; a systematic process in which an outside observer of a culture relates to an indigenous people or sub-cultural group on their own terms and from their own point-of-view, rather than interpreting them in terms of his or her own culture

Marx believes class consciousness will result in

a revolution and communism

Weber's view on class domination

some forms of power are legitimate authority

Three types of legitimate power

traditional, legal, charismatic

Weber believes that capitalism cause us to focus on

trying to attain the highest level of efficiency in everything


trying to attain the highest level of efficiency in everything

Rationality gives economics the

spirit of capitalism

spirit of capitalism

the drive to be efficient in making money

In organizations, rationality produces



the school of thought based on Durkheim's thinking; show the function of a social fact to establish social order

Examples of functionalism

religion and crime "deviance" crime


most basic form: identifying with an emblem (animal, etc.) that represents the community

Valuing divine figures gives a society


Totemism values take the form of


Religious beliefs

what is sacred and profane

"Collective effervescence"

Produced in religious gatherings binds a society together

Crime offers society the opportunity to

reinforce its norms by punishing the deviant or change its norms, and not punish the deviant

Principles of functionalism

1. society has a tendency toward equilibrium
2. for a society to survive, certain functions must occur
3. Social institutions and practices exist because they provide those functions for the larger society

latent function

social institutions and practices exist because they provide those functions for the larger society

Limitations to functionalism

1. It is teleological: the outcomes of social phenomena are given as their causes
2. Because it describers and explains things "as they are" it isn't competent in: dealing with historical issues and dealing with conflict
3. For the same reason, it is uncritical (too accepting) of status quo

What happened to functionalism?

Dominant from early 1900s until the 1960s
1960s-1970s: World Events
Attacked by Conflict theorists, such as C. Wright Mills
Now there is a modest revival functionalism

The man associated with Functionalism


These theorists attacked functionalism

Conflict theorists--C. Wright Mills

Another name for Mechanical & organic "solidarity"

social order or integration

In traditional societies, integration or cohesion is called


Mechanical is based on the

homogeneity of social groups and their values

In modern societies integration or cohesion is called


People contribute to solidarity by

playing a specialized role

The self is held together by


Social facts

factors external to the individual that exert an influence on the individual

Individual actions are consequence of

"social facts"

Durkheim's topic of deep interest


Method Durkheim used to prove his claims on suicide


According to Durkheim, suicide is not caused by

psychological, biological, or comic factors

According to Durkheim, suicide is caused by

"social factors"

Examples of social factors that influence suicide

religious belief, nationalism, and family structure

Types of suicide

egoistic, altruistic, anomic, fatalistic

French sociologists wanted to understand social order because

things were not in good social order in France

Egoistic suicide

reflects a prolonged sense of not belonging, of not being integrated in a community, an experience, of not having a tether, an absence that can give rise to meaninglessness, apathy, melancholy, and depression

Example of egoistic suicide

man committed suicide after three divorces

Altruistic suicide

characterized by a sense of being overwhelmed by a group's goals and beliefs

Example of altruistic suicide

cults and martyrs

Anomic suicide

reflects an individual's moral confusion and lack of social direction, which is related to dramatic social and economic upheaval

Example of anomic suicide

been in prison their whole life, and then they get out; immigrants

Fatalistic suicide

the opposite of anomic suicide, when a person is excessively regulated, when their futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently chocked by oppressive discipline

Example of fatalistic suicide

POW, suicide

While Durkheim developed his sociological ideas, he taught


Marx, Weber, and Durkheim were all


Durkheim believed that the structure of society are


Structures of society help give society


Durkheim compared society to

a living organsim

Durkheim believed religion is a worshiping of


Durkheim believed religion is about

bringing its members together

Society is like an organism because they both

consist of interdependent systems, each with specific functions

Society is more than

the sum of its parts

Durkheim says social realities are not a consequence of the

actions of the individuals within society

Individuals actions are the consequence of

"social facts"

Social facts

factors external to the individual that exert an influence on the individual

Examples of social facts

religious beliefs, currency used to undertake transactions, factors such as "the practices followed in my profession"

Cooley's connection to Ann Arbor and Michigan

born and died in Ann Arbor, got his degrees at Michigan, taught economics and sociology at Michigan

Cooley's Ideas in the "Looking Glass Self"

1) idea of other's perception
2) idea of other's judgment
3) self feeling

Cooley's main work

"Looking Glass Self"

Cooley's primary groups that affect people's self

family, playground, neighborhood

Mead's question

What is the social basis of individual action?

Biographical facts on Mead

Religious background--protestant
Influenced by (and reacted to) both Cooley and Dewey
Taught at Michigan and then Chicago
Writers block: never published

Theoretical ideas of Mead

1) The social development of self
2) The Self as object
3) The I and the Me
4) Even thinking is social
5) I think before I act--Beyond behaviorism and structuralism

Mead's "the social development of self"

Self arises in the child's social experience, using language & symbol

Examples of social experiences that shape children

1) imitation
2) role play
3) games
4) "generalized other"

Mead's "The Self as Object"

The Self is reflexive:
I can consider myself: look at myself as though I am an object
What I see when I view myself is adopted from the way others see me
Cooley's "Looking Glass Self"

Cooley's "Looking Glass Self" goes along with Mead's

"The Self as Object"

The "I" and the "Me"

"I" is the creative, impulsive part of Self that changes the world around
"Me" is the judgmental, controlling part of self that has been imprinted by the world around
"I" acts, "Me" constrains

Even thinking is social

We think using symbols, words, language
We learn the meaning of symbols, words and language from others
Therefore thinking is a socially trained skill

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