226 terms

History of Sociology

Factors that led to emergence of sociology
intellectual, economic, social, political
Examples of intellectual factors that led to the emergence of sociology
The Enlightenment, The Counter-Enlightenment, Differentiation of social sciences within the university
Examples of economic factors that led to the emergence of sociology
Expansion of commerce and markets, industrialization
Examples of social factors that led to the emergence of sociology
Urbanization, decline of local communities
Examples of political factors that led to the emergence of sociology
Rise of bureaucratic nation states, decline in the power of the Church, feminism
The purpose of the emergence of sociology
an attempt to explain the social "chaos"
When did the changes in Europe become the most dramatic?
19th century
The Counter-Enlightenment perspective created the belief that...
the institutional and collective perspective must be considered
The Enlightenment thinking started the interest in
assessing social change scientifically based
Sociology draws from the social science disciplines:
history, economics, psychology, anthropolgy
Auguste Compte's evolution of world views and societies:
theological --> metaphysical--> scientific/positive
The individual that coined the term sociology
Auguste Compte
Auguste Compte refers to sociology as:
The Queen of the Sciences
Harriet Martineau developed the principles and methods of...
empirical social research
Marx's academic career can be described as
one of frustration
Marx's collision with authorities resulted in
his expulsion from multiple cities
Marx settled in...
Marx's economic status:
middle class then poverty
In his later years, Marx was a leader of
international worker's movement
"Historical materialism" means
History progresses and change is driven by conflicts to "production" (i.e., economic or material conflict)
Marx agrees with Hegel that...
conflict is the basis of social change
Marx's disagreement with Hegel
Hegel--a conflict of ideas
Marx--a conflict over the material and production
Weber's view on the forces of social change
real material forces and ideas
owners: own the means of production
Another word for Bourgeoisie
Results of bourgeoisie
reduced the family relation to a mere money relation
The reduction of family relation resulted in
urbanization and the increasing wealth of owners
Bourgeoisie exploit
the world market and natural resources
working class
Pre-revolutionary class
Alienation of labor
the proletarians has lost all individual character and all charm for the workman; becomes an appendage of the machine; most simple and monotonous skill that is required by him
Commodification of labor
selling your labor to someone else
people produce things for their exchange value
Marx's view of urbanization
bourgeoisie has agglomerated populations and centralized means of production
Marx's view of family
capitalism distorts family relationships and dehumanizes the family relation
Marx's view of globalization
globalization is an attempt to find raw materials and markets
The spread of capitalism is...
Social super structure & economic base
All social institutions ("super structure") arise from--and for the sake of--the material/economic base, which includes religion and education
Future of capitalism
foresees economic globalization (in an attempt to find raw materials and markets): the movement of capitalism throughout the world; communism will naturally arise from capitalism
Characteristics of economics in a feudalist state
"Use" labor, products have "use value", personal relationship
Characteristics of economics in a communist state
class consciousness, revolution, proletarian control over means of production
exchange value
products are produced for exchange value
exchange value is associated with
alienated labor
products are produced for exchange value
alienated labor is associated with
eras of history
Marx's economic determinism
the theory which attributes primary to the economic structure over politics in the development of human history; economic laws determine the course of history
Weber's class status
upper middle class
Weber's nationality
Weber's family situation and its effect
his parents fought and he was unhappy at home
Weber's academic career can be classified as
one of success
Weber's wife
Marianne, a writer
Weber's spending habits
spent a lot of money
Weber's outlook on life and health
bouts of depression and pessimistic outlook
Weber's religion
Hegel's view on what drives change
the conflict of ideas drives changes in material realities
Marx's view on what drives change
material conflicts drive changes in ideas
Weber's view on what drives change
it can go in both directions--the conflict of ideas can drive changes in material realities and material conflicts can drive changes in ideas
Weber believes that capitalism arose from
the protestant work ethic
Calvinist protestant worked because
it was their duty to God; they hoped to prove that they were God's chosen
"worldly asceticism"
doing things on earth but with a focus on heaven
Calvinists became the
According to Weber religion created
Weber believes the economic system was created by
the world of ideas and culture
Marx believes the economic system is driven by
class conflict
Weber's three types of conflict
class, status, party
Class (Weber)
those with the same possession of goods or opportunities to make money
Four classes
capitalists, property owners, those who hold patents/copy rights, etc, and laborers
In order for a class to take action, the class members must
recognize their economic situation and its consequences
Weber's response to Marx's believing that the proletariat will gain "class consciousness" and rise up in revolt
Not necessarily
a group whose members share a characteristic or lifestyle that is honored or dishonored in society
Is status linked to class?
maybe or maybe not
If economic circumstances are stable, then _______ will drive social realities.
a self-selected group that seeks to influence a particular social issue or action
The aim of a party is
causing a particular action
Who believes people should be scientific and empirical in examining society, looking at real things and being objective? (Enlightenment thinking)
Who believes people can't examine people like their chemicals, people need the "subjectivity" of understanding how the people we are studying experience their situation? (sociological approach)
an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action; a systematic process in which an outside observer of a culture relates to an indigenous people or sub-cultural group on their own terms and from their own point-of-view, rather than interpreting them in terms of his or her own culture
Marx believes class consciousness will result in
a revolution and communism
Weber's view on class domination
some forms of power are legitimate authority
Three types of legitimate power
traditional, legal, charismatic
Weber believes that capitalism cause us to focus on
trying to attain the highest level of efficiency in everything
trying to attain the highest level of efficiency in everything
Rationality gives economics the
spirit of capitalism
spirit of capitalism
the drive to be efficient in making money
In organizations, rationality produces
the school of thought based on Durkheim's thinking; show the function of a social fact to establish social order
Examples of functionalism
religion and crime "deviance" crime
most basic form: identifying with an emblem (animal, etc.) that represents the community
Valuing divine figures gives a society
Totemism values take the form of
Religious beliefs
what is sacred and profane
"Collective effervescence"
Produced in religious gatherings binds a society together
Crime offers society the opportunity to
reinforce its norms by punishing the deviant or change its norms, and not punish the deviant
Principles of functionalism
1. society has a tendency toward equilibrium
2. for a society to survive, certain functions must occur
3. Social institutions and practices exist because they provide those functions for the larger society
latent function
social institutions and practices exist because they provide those functions for the larger society
Limitations to functionalism
1. It is teleological: the outcomes of social phenomena are given as their causes
2. Because it describers and explains things "as they are" it isn't competent in: dealing with historical issues and dealing with conflict
3. For the same reason, it is uncritical (too accepting) of status quo
What happened to functionalism?
Dominant from early 1900s until the 1960s
1960s-1970s: World Events
Attacked by Conflict theorists, such as C. Wright Mills
Now there is a modest revival functionalism
The man associated with Functionalism
These theorists attacked functionalism
Conflict theorists--C. Wright Mills
Another name for Mechanical & organic "solidarity"
social order or integration
In traditional societies, integration or cohesion is called
Mechanical is based on the
homogeneity of social groups and their values
In modern societies integration or cohesion is called
People contribute to solidarity by
playing a specialized role
The self is held together by
Social facts
factors external to the individual that exert an influence on the individual
Individual actions are consequence of
"social facts"
Durkheim's topic of deep interest
Method Durkheim used to prove his claims on suicide
According to Durkheim, suicide is not caused by
psychological, biological, or comic factors
According to Durkheim, suicide is caused by
"social factors"
Examples of social factors that influence suicide
religious belief, nationalism, and family structure
Types of suicide
egoistic, altruistic, anomic, fatalistic
French sociologists wanted to understand social order because
things were not in good social order in France
Egoistic suicide
reflects a prolonged sense of not belonging, of not being integrated in a community, an experience, of not having a tether, an absence that can give rise to meaninglessness, apathy, melancholy, and depression
Example of egoistic suicide
man committed suicide after three divorces
Altruistic suicide
characterized by a sense of being overwhelmed by a group's goals and beliefs
Example of altruistic suicide
cults and martyrs
Anomic suicide
reflects an individual's moral confusion and lack of social direction, which is related to dramatic social and economic upheaval
Example of anomic suicide
been in prison their whole life, and then they get out; immigrants
Fatalistic suicide
the opposite of anomic suicide, when a person is excessively regulated, when their futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently chocked by oppressive discipline
Example of fatalistic suicide
POW, suicide
While Durkheim developed his sociological ideas, he taught
Marx, Weber, and Durkheim were all
Durkheim believed that the structure of society are
Structures of society help give society
Durkheim compared society to
a living organsim
Durkheim believed religion is a worshiping of
Durkheim believed religion is about
bringing its members together
Society is like an organism because they both
consist of interdependent systems, each with specific functions
Society is more than
the sum of its parts
Durkheim says social realities are not a consequence of the
actions of the individuals within society
Individuals actions are the consequence of
"social facts"
Social facts
factors external to the individual that exert an influence on the individual
Examples of social facts
religious beliefs, currency used to undertake transactions, factors such as "the practices followed in my profession"
Cooley's connection to Ann Arbor and Michigan
born and died in Ann Arbor, got his degrees at Michigan, taught economics and sociology at Michigan
Cooley's Ideas in the "Looking Glass Self"
1) idea of other's perception
2) idea of other's judgment
3) self feeling
Cooley's main work
"Looking Glass Self"
Cooley's primary groups that affect people's self
family, playground, neighborhood
Mead's question
What is the social basis of individual action?
Biographical facts on Mead
Religious background--protestant
Influenced by (and reacted to) both Cooley and Dewey
Taught at Michigan and then Chicago
Writers block: never published
Theoretical ideas of Mead
1) The social development of self
2) The Self as object
3) The I and the Me
4) Even thinking is social
5) I think before I act--Beyond behaviorism and structuralism
Mead's "the social development of self"
Self arises in the child's social experience, using language & symbol
Examples of social experiences that shape children
1) imitation
2) role play
3) games
4) "generalized other"
Mead's "The Self as Object"
The Self is reflexive:
I can consider myself: look at myself as though I am an object
What I see when I view myself is adopted from the way others see me
Cooley's "Looking Glass Self"
Cooley's "Looking Glass Self" goes along with Mead's
"The Self as Object"
The "I" and the "Me"
"I" is the creative, impulsive part of Self that changes the world around
"Me" is the judgmental, controlling part of self that has been imprinted by the world around
"I" acts, "Me" constrains
Even thinking is social
We think using symbols, words, language
We learn the meaning of symbols, words and language from others
Therefore thinking is a socially trained skill
I think before I act-Beyond behaviorism and structuralism
Behaviorism (psych)-individuals react to stimuli
Mead: before acting, individuals consider the socially defined meaning of both the stimulus and their potential responses
Significant symbols
Gestures (Mead)
an action calling forth a response from another (much the same as "stimulus")
Significant symbols
gestures that have a shared meaning for sender and receiver (or speaker and listener)
The individual that began the study of symbolic interaction
The individual that formulated symbolic interaction
Blumer's University
University of Chicago
Traditional sociology on media
Individuals are the media through which outside forces/institutions operate
Traditional sociology on social behaviors
Social behaviors are not constructed, they are reactions
Traditional sociology on social actions
Social action is lodged in society or some unit of society
Traditional sociology on societal organizations/units
Societal organizations/units determine individual actions
Traditional sociology on the study
Sociology is the study of structures and their impact on actions (e.g., functionalism & organicism)
Symbolic Interaction on individuals
Individuals have a "self" and are intentional
Symbolic Interaction on social behaviors
Social behaviors are based on individuals' interpretation of the situation
Symbolic Interaction on social action
Social action is lodged in the individual
Symbolic Interaction on Societal organizations/units
Societal organizations/units provide a framework for action, and a fixed set of symbols
Symbolic Interaction on the study
Sociology is the study of process of interpretation by which people determine their actions
Main point of symbolic interaction
The meanings of society are shaped over time as individuals interact with each other over time; emphasizes agency
Opposite of structure
Failures of reconstruction
Early federal attempts to enforce racial equality in the South are abandoned
15th amendment overturned; 14th reinterpreted
Jim Crow discriminatory laws emerge through the region
The North is better, but still steeped in white supremacy
The Eugenics Movement leader
Madison Grant
The Eugenics Movement
The Passing of the Great Race
Wanted to purify America through selective breeding
Lobbied for strong immigration restriction and anti-miscegenation policies
The first wave of African American "Sociologists"
Refuting racism
Social critique and direct action
Generally theoretical rather than empirical
Black nationalist
Founder of United Negro Improvement Association & African Communities League
"Back-To-Africa" movement
Wanted those of African ancestry to redeem Africa and for European colonial powers to leave it
A popular African American spokesperson
Labeled an "accommodator" for cooperating with white people
Helped raise funds for black educational institutions
His autobiography, Up from Slavery 1901
Du Bois biographical facts
Born: Great Barrington, MA
Sheltered from racism present in most of US
Educated: Fisk University, University of Berlin, Harvard
Du Bois Harvard achievement
Harvard's first African American PhD
Du Bois first encountered harsh racism at
Du Bois discipline
African-American History & Economics, Sociology
Du Bois first taught at
Wilberforce then Penn
Key ideas from Du Bois and the Philadephia Negro
While at Penn,
this was the 1st African American sociological work
Demonstrate that the problem of blacks did not stem from their own actions or inabilities, but from the difficulties they faced as former slaves in a world of white supremacy
Method Du Bois used to demonstrate his claims
empirical work
Key ideas from Souls of Black--Du Bois
Color line, veil, and double consciousness
Color line
socially constructed black/white division that is collective/individual, historical/existential, conscious/irrational
a sense of being shut out from other race's experience
Double consciousness
sense of being perceived as an outsider by others that prevents formation of a unified self
Emphasis out his NAACP era
Founded NAACP; joined staff
disappointed about the power of academia to effect change
More directly involved in political activism
Writings focused on the connection between race and class: race conflicts are a distraction that prevents the formation of class consciousness
Also wrote about colonialism as racism
Du Bois said colonialism is
Overtime, Du Bois became increasingly
Second Wave of race theorists saw black American culture as
an American phenomenon (not African)
Second wave of race theorists thought racial uplift depended on
moral and cultural advancements
Second wave of race theorists paid attention to the impact of social conditions on the
black psyche
Second wave of therapists especially used the
standard sociological technique and empiricism
Second wave of race theorists used more
detached observation
Second Wave of race theorists, Robert Parker believed in
melting pot: prior patterns will gradually be abandoned in favor of white culture
Post-WWII race theory asserts the importance of the
African lens for African American experience and understanding colonialism as international racism
Per Sarah Susanah Willie--Three general types of theories on racism
stratification, economic, and social constructions
Stratification theory
this theory asserts that groups and individuals are arranged in a social hierarchy according to ascribed and acquired characteristics; race is seen as advantaging or disadvantaging
Economic theory
CONFLICT, Race is an invention of capitalism that justifies some people becoming commodities while others become owners.
Social construction
race changes depending upon social context
Example of social construction
symbolic interactionism
Goffman offers us a more
flexible, agent-centered option dramaturgy (human actions are dependent upon time, place, and audience)
Goffman says that all the time people are
People can show different faces and lines with different people and not be
"out of face"--not be inappropriate to their identity
Example of Goffman's perspective on race
A black student can study opera at school and listen to rap at home
Harriet Martineau main exploration
"Dress and its victims"-talked about women's fashion
Fashion is not practical and physically damaging women
Harriet Martineau's focus
How we use sociology
Anna Julia Cooper
witness oppression-appeal to public conscience
black women writers crafted a writing position of the self as "witness" to testify to the realities of oppression
A voice from the South
"The Colored Woman's Office"-The redemptive power of the African American women
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Feminism; mental health
"The Yellow Wallpaper"
Committed suicide-had cancer and felt satisfied with her life
She let her husband keep her daugher
Husband and doctor shut her in her room when she was depressed
Jane Addams
Established a Hull House-women, children, impoverished immigrants
Chicago Women's School of Sociology
People are too concerned about individual manners
Democracy and Social Ethics America must raise moral concerns from the personal to the social
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Worked against race discrimination in railroads (foreshadows Rosa Parks)
Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases
Marianne Weber
Uses marriage and women's work to explain the patriarchal distortion of social life
Pro Marxism in feminism
"On the Valuation of Housework"
Patricia Hill Collins examines the
"matrix of domination"
Components of "Matrix of domination"
gender, race, and class
Collins classic work
"Black Feminist Thought"
Collins: black women have this knowledge
experiential (standpoint) knowledge that gives them the ability to improve the knowledge of others
Standpoint theory
women [or other oppressed groups] possess knowledge unavailable to the socially privileged, particularly knowledge of social relations
"Controlling Images and Black Women's Oppression" 4 false images that began in the slave era
the mammy, the matriarch, the welfare mother, the Jezebel image
The black women false images serve as
justification for the control of black women by whites, especially men
The Mammy
faithful, obedient, domestic servant
The Matriarch
overly strong woman in her own home
The Welfare Mother
bears children; her fertility must be controlled
The Jezebel image
sexually aggressive women
theme of black womanhood where sexuality is negative: misused or missing
The basis for oppression
Basic questions in contemporary feminist theory
1) what about the women? (description)
2) why is all this as it is? (explanation)
3) how can we make the social world more just for women and all others? (action)
What about the women? (description)
In any situation, where are the women? If absent, why?
If present, what are they doing?
How do they experience the situation?
Why is all this as it is? (explanation)
Perspectives include
Gender difference
Gender inequality
Gender oppression
Structural oppression
Outcomes of contemporary feminist theory
added dimension of feminist experience and viewpoint shifts our understanding of the world
Therefore, our established systems of knowledge are called into question
Basic points made in Zinn's article
Recent insights in feminism/gender studies:
We need to understand differences among women, not just between women and men
Masculinities need to be understood
Gender roles are linked to patterns of global economic restructuring
Differences among men and women create a spectrum of relationships, not a patchwork of differences