Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, March 6 from 3–4 PM PST
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (21)
this genre of philosophy involves an emphasis on precision of form and rationality over ambiguity and imagination or emotion. Formal and restrained; poets often wrote in classical genres. Neoclassicism was seen in the 18th century during the Enlightenment/Age of Reason, pre-Romanticism - classicism is also opposed to Romanticism. Involves high regard for classical antiquity (earlier Greek, Roman works). In drama, Aristotle's unities of time, place, and action were important (Way of the World by Congreve). In reference to the classics themselves, these would be works of the 5thc and 4thc BC in Greece and the 1st centuries BC and AD in Rome, when each culture had reached its artistic culmination. The ideals exemplified during this ancient time, namely simplicity, directness, order, clarity, decorum, balance, unity, and emphasis on reason, can be seen reflected in some neoclassicist 18th century works, like Voltaire, Addison, Swift, and Pope. Classicism is seen in the Age of Reason, the Age of Enlightenment, and some Modernist literature.
16th Century-this school of thought and attitude of the mind was the heart of the Renaissance in the 16th century and took its name from the studia humanitatis, or studies in grammar, poetry, moral philosophy, rhetoric, and history thought to possess human value and the ability to make man "higher," elevated above lower animals. Ancient writings of Greece and Rome were particularly revered. Example: Giovanni Boccaccio (The Decameron), 14th century. Petrarch is often called the first humanist. The origins of humanism have been found to lie in the introduction of Greek studies into Italy from the Byzantine world and in the economic flowering of Italian city-states, which provided more leisure time for cultural activities.
this is based on the ideas of 4th century BC Athenian philosopher Plato, who argued the universe is divided into two realms of existence: perceptible reality which is not intelligible and reality which is not perceptible but is intelligible. The physical is an imperfect imitation of the world of external form, merely a copy of reality, while literature is an imitation of the physical and therefore is twice removed from reality. Plato's core philosophy deals with the doctrine of ideas and the belief that, through the soul, the mediator between ideas and appearances, one may obtain knowledge.
14th-17th century-during the Renaissance, this combined Platonic thought with Christian symbolism and Jewish mysticism into a single philosophical system (credit Plotinus, ancient philosopher during the 3rdc). Neoplatonism contributed to the idea of platonic, or spiritual, love, which allows for a closeness to God unlike purely physical love. Examples include Spenser (The Faerie Queene) and Sir Philip Sidney (Astrophel and Stella). The fundamental concept of neoplatonism is unity, and it is based on the concept that there is truth as well as the idea that man can return to God through reason. Neoplatonism asserts three levels of reality, inspired by Aritstotle's equation of being with intelligence: non-being (Nature, vegetative existence, sensible things); Being (intellect); and Beyond Being (The One, The Good). Union can be achieved with the last, most "real" level. These ideas were found highly congenial by the developing Christian philosophy.
17th-18th century-the revival/adaptation of classical taste and style. A term especially used in French and English literature to decribe the spirit underlying much work during the 17th and 18th centuries. Examples: Racine, Voltaire (Candide), Addison, Swift (Gulliver's Travels, parody of a travel book), Pope (Rape of the Lock, a mock heroic poem). These works were formal and structured and relied on reason and rationality rather than emotions, following the classical model, and they were also often satirical and focused their art on humanity. Neoclassicism is opposed to Romanticism.
later 18th century-sentimental novels and poetry were a reaction against the rationality of the Augustan age and Calvinism, which had a dismal regard for human nature, and these works would often strive to induce emotion. At the time, the ability to display feelings was thought to indicate character and foster relational developments. Works would often feature scenes of tenderness and distress, and plots would typically advance emotions rather than actions. Examples may include the works of Jane Austen, Rousseau, and Charlotte Bronte.
late 19th-early 20th century-involves emphasizing the subjective impression a writer or character has of reality and describing it as accurately as possible rather than focusing on an objective portrayal of "reality." Impressionism was established in the late 19th century in German literature and was a reaction to the materialism of mid-19th century philosophy as well as the objectivity of naturalism. Wanted to make words more precise and concentrate on specific human situations. Examples: Modern novelists like James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and Joseph Conrad, or the early work of poets like Rilke.
19th century-the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was established in 1848 to protest against the prevailing conventions of painting (Italian artist Raphael painted realistically, academic painting, but the PRB claimed this was not how reality looked but merely how painting was "supposed" to look. They added an element of spirituality and luminosity, often derived from literature) and led to a literary movement, primarily in poetry. The poetry of the Brotherhood, most notably that of Christina Rossetti, tended to treat medieval or mystical themes in a sensuous, symbolic narrative verse, rich in pictorial detail.
19th century-in the 19th century, realism contrasted Romanticism in that it involved portraying life accurately. It was influenced by an expanding middle class readership, and as a result, authors wrote about issues the readers could usually identify with. Realism contributed to the growth of naturalism. Examples of realist authors include Rebecca Harding Davis (Life in the Iron Mills), Mark Twain, and Henry James (Daisy Miller: A Study). Realism in literature offers verisimilitude, or the appearance of being true.
18th-19th century-this was an 18th and 19th century movement that was a revolt against the Neoclassical movement of the previous century, stressing imagination, emotion, freedom, individuality, a revere for nature as something nearly divine, and spontaneity. Romanticism also believed in the goodness of man in his natural state, or philosophic idealism, and possessed an interest in the supernatural, the morbid, and the melancholy. Rousseau is considered the father of Romanticism. English Romantics include Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, Byron, Southey.
late 19th century-a movement occurring in late 19th century Europe in art and literature, perhaps defined by the phrase, "Art for art's sake." Post-Romantic, pre-Modern. Saw art's purpose as sensuous pleasure rather than didactic. Largely influenced by German Romantics, particularly Goethe. Related to the work of the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and Parnassians because of the common quest for beauty and the idea that art should not serve only a moral purpose. Examples in America: Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oscar Wilde.
19th century-this American literary and philosophic movement centered in New England in the 19th century and was a reaction against scientific rationalism and perhaps branched out of Romanticism. Opposed to the pessimism of Puritan Calvinism. Relied on intuition, and its spokesperson, Emerson, expressed the belief that everything in the world is a microcosm of the universe. Stresses unity of all things under the order of the Over-Soul and the importance of nature. Examples of powerful literary voices in the movement include Thoreau, Emerson, and Fuller.
late 19th-early 20th century-term referring to art, literature, and music during the late 19th, 20th century containing a variety of movements, including impressionism, postimpressionism, symbolism, and surrealism. At its roots it is a reaction to classicism and the Enlightenment. "High Modernism" began with WWI, roughly, and lasted through WWII. Modern literature is often characterized by focus on subjectivity, a rejection of classical models, self-consciously "poetic" diction, and styles like stream-of-consciousness (Joyce). Often self-referential. Historically, modernism reflected the disentegration of tradition marked by heterodoxy and multiplicity. Other examples: T.S. Eliot (The Wasteland, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock), Ezra Pound (In a Station of the Metro) - both influenced by the symbolists like Baudelaire and Rimbaud. Ideas of Freud and Nietzsche also influential.
late 19th-early 20th century-in the late 19th, early 20th century, this usually deals with the lower class and depicts man at odds with the natural environment and with his own animalistic drives. Influenced by Darwin's "survival of the fittest" as well as the biological and socioeconomic determinism of Marx and Taine. These works aimed to express human experience as truthfully and accurately as if it were scientific material. Naturalism in America was to some extent an outgrowth of Realism and was influenced by the spread of theories of evolution, historial determinism, and mechanistic philosophy. An example is Jack London's "To Build a Fire."
late 19th-early 20th century-originally, symbolists were a group of French poets at the end of the 19th century whose work was meant to revolt against the cold impersonality of the realistic novel and its portrayal of objective reality. Metaphor was important as poetry aimed to re-create the human consciousness and became less conventional. Examples are Poe, Rimbaud, and Baudelaire, and 20th century Britain saw symbolism used by the likes of Joyce, D.H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, and Joseph Conrad, as well as T.S. Eliot and D.H. Lawrence—novels were constructed in a manner that allowed much of the meaning to be conveyed through patterns of images and ideas and central suggestive symbols rather than traditional narrative and overt discourse.
20th century-in the 20th century, this sought to do away with many elements of reason in favor of more abstract representations of the "higher reality" of the unconscious, in art, literature, and philosophy. Was founded in France in 1924; WWI heightened protest against scientific, materialistic worldviews and contributed to the belief that the intellect alone was insufficient for understanding reality. Some surrealist groups based their ideas off of Freud's theory of the unconscious and engaged in "automatic writing" to reveal the true content of the human soul; others investigated dreams and psychic states. Examples of those who incorporated surrealism into their work either during the movement or after its influence include e.e. cummings, Garcia Lorca, William Carlos Williams, Henry Miller, and artists like Dali and Picasso.
early 20th century-occurred in the early 20th century, focusing on expressing inner, subjective experience in an often abstract or dissonant manner—also, the antithesis of impressionism. In literature, expressionism first began with lyric poets who wrote in a condensed, expressive language. In drama, there were dream-like distortions, successive scenes were sometimes only connected by ideas rather than continuity of action, action was fantastic and sets unreal. The dramatis personae are also not characters but are types without fully developed personalities. In literature, life was portrayed as it was felt, usually symbolically. In regard to history and politics, expressionism continued the satirical rejection of complacent bourgeois values. Examples: T.S. Eliot (The Wasteland), Kafka (The Metamorphosis).
early 20th century-a creative outpouring from African Americans in literature, art, music, and dance that was post-WWI, pre-Depression (1920s and 1930s, so early 20th century) and centered in Harlem, NYC. The Harlem Renaissance was the result of mass migration to northern cities, and participants aimed to expose in a new light the many unrecognized aspects of black culture. Themes include the effects of slavery, institutional racism, and dilemmas of how to write for white audiences. Coming to an end with the onset of the economic depression of the 1930s, the Harlem Renaissance left behind a rich cultural legacy. Examples: Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer (Cane), Zora Neale Hurston (Their Eyes were Watching God, How It Feels to be Colored Me, The Gilded Six-Bits), Nella Larsen (Passing).
early 20th century-a theory of poetry coined by Ezra Pound at the beginning of the 20th century (think: In a Station at the Metro) focusing on the presentation of the individual image rather than description. Imagism greatly influenced trends in modern poetry and was influenced by medieval philosophy, the aesthetics of Henri Bergson, and Japanese poetry, yet was primarily a reaction against the stultified forms and bucolic sentimentality of the Georgians. Another example: William Carlos Williams (The Red Wheelbarrow).
20th century-this term was introduced by Alejo Carpentier, a Cuban novelist who saw in magical realism the capacity to enrich our idea of what is "real" by incorporating all dimensions of the imagination, particularly as expressed in myth, magic, and religion. This Latin American mode has since influenced writers around the world. Elements include shifts in time, surreal descriptions, surprise, abrupt shock, the horrific, and the inexplicable. Examples are Hoffman, Kafka, and Kleist.
20th century-this is a 20th century reaction to modernism and is typically anti-authority, self-reflexive, and/or ironic, as far as literature is concerned. Examples of postmodern writers may include Vonnegut and Nobokov. Postmodernism tends to discover itself in the cultures of other times and places. Historically, postmodernity also denotes a shift in the political economy, often dated from the end of WWII. Drama would include theater of the absurd.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Fiction Lit Terms
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Art History 100 Final
Art 112 Final image list
English Literary Isms
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Periods and Ideas
General Theoretical Terms
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
History of Christianity Exam 4
14 - Thorax 3
physiology chapter 10