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28 terms

chaper 12 luke

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transformation
process in which one strain of bacteria appears to change into another one
bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
base pairing
principle that states that only Adenine+ Thymine, Cytosine+ Guanine
chromatin
consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
histone
protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
replication
process in which DNA makes a copy of itself
DNA polymerase
The enzyme which puts together the nucleotides in DNA replication
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
transcription
a process that takes place in a cell where DNA acts as a template to form mRNA
RNA polymerase
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and seperates the DNA strands during transcription
promoter
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
intron
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
exon
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
codon
a sequence of 3 nucleotides on mRNA that codes for a single amino acid
translation
decoding of an mRNA message into a polypetide chain
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complimentary to an mRNA codon
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
point mutation
gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
polyploidy
condition in which an organism has an extra set of chromosomes
operon
a group of genes that operate together
operator
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is turned off
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
hox gene
series of genes that control the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo