State the purpose of Naval Intelligence
Naval intelligence, which supports all aspects of naval operations, has the following primary purposes:
Supporting the Commander
Commanders require intelligence as a tool to evaluate the feasibility of, or determine risk factors associated with, objectives, plan and direct operations, and evaluate the effects of their actions. As the commander's primary advisor for intelligence matters, the intelligence officer must support the commander, his staff, and lateral and subordinate commands not only with tailored intelligence, but by accurately conveying the capabilities and limitations of the intelligence system as well. The commander and his forces must have a clear understanding of what intelligence can and cannot provide, and how it will support the operation.
To be effective, intelligence support must have credibility which is attained by gaining the trust of the commander. This trust is usually gained over time, after a track record of accurate intelligence assessments has been established. Intelligence allows the commander to fight smarter by supporting his selection of the best courses of action. This includes advising the commander when an objective or planned course of action is probably not obtainable, even if this advice goes against the conventional wisdom. Each intelligence estimate should reflect clear analysis and sound judgment. The ultimate goal is to provide the commander and his forces the intelligence support needed to prevail in combat.
Identifying Centers of Gravity and Critical Vulnerabilities
Naval intelligence strives to provide an accurate picture of the battlespace from which we can identify clear and attainable objectives. For instance, at the operational level, the force commander may decide that to accomplish his objective, a particular target set such as enemy command and control facilities must be destroyed. At the tactical level, intelligence support is needed to plan an effective strike against a specific element of that target set, such as a radio-relay site. This tactical intelligence may consist of detailed, analyzed target photographs from tactical reconnaissance or national collection systems, pinpointing essential aim points for the strike leader.
Supporting Planning and Execution of Operations
Naval intelligence provides staff support in both deliberate and crisis action planning.4 During planning, collection resources are identified and tasked to meet intelligence requirements in support of the operation. Gaining knowledge of an adversarys capabilities and intentions may alter operational plans significantly. Similarly, changing operational tasking may in turn modify intelligence requirements. A close partnership between the intelligence and operations officers will keep operations efforts focused on the mission and ensure that intelligence requirements are met. Throughout all phases of planning and execution, intelligence and operations are critically interdependent.
Protecting the Force
Naval intelligence provides early warning of impending hostile action and reduces risk by detecting adversary actions that have an impact on friendly planning assumptions. Effective force protection enables us to limit the adverse effects of deception and surprise. Force protection efforts, supported by vigorous counterintelligence operations, can limit or distort the adversarys assessment of friendly capabilities and intentions. Further, naval intelligence provides the information needed to conduct successful deception measures against the adversary. These measures require detailed knowledge of the adversarys perceptions, vulnerabilities, intelligence-gathering capabilities and limitations, tactics, techniques and procedures, and the physical characteristics of the battlespace. Moreover, intelligence can reduce the likelihood of fratricide by helping to clear the fog of war.
Supporting Combat Assessment
Naval intelligence is essential in developing combat assessments that can help the commander decide whether to redirect friendly forces or end operations. Combat assessment is the procedure by which the commander weighs the effectiveness of military operations by considering battle damage assessment, munitions effectiveness, and reattack recommendations. Analysis of the enemys reaction to friendly operations gives us insights into his morale, materiel status, and ability to continue hostilities.
Define the five steps of Intelligence
Strategic Guidance, Concept Development, Plan Development, Plan Assesment and Operation.
Describe the three categories of Intelligence
Strategic Intelligence is required for the formation of policy and military plans at national and international levels. At the strategic level, intelligence is oriented toward national objectives and supports the formulation of policies and determination of priorities. Strategic intelligence focuses first on discerning the capabilities and intentions of potential adversaries as well as considering the strategic intentions of allies and other potential multinational partners. Strategic intelligence plays a central role in identifying an adversary's centers of gravity.
Operational Intelligence is required for planning operations within regional theaters or areas of operations. It concentrates on intelligence collection, identification, location, and analysis to support the operational level of warfare, which includes identifying an adversary's operational critical vulnerabilities. Further, it assists the commander in deciding how best to employ forces while minimizing risk.
Tactical Intelligence is required for planning and conducting tactical operations at the component or unit level. It focuses on a potential adversary's capabilities, his immediate intentions, and the environment. It is oriented more toward combat than long-range planning. Far more than at any other level, tactical intelligence support is the primary focus of naval intelligence.
Define National, Theater, and Fleet Level Intelligence Organizations.
The Director of National Intelligence (DNI)
DNI has overall responsibility for intelligence support to the President and the day-to-day management of the IC. Specifically, the DNI establishes objectives and priorities for the IC and manages and directs the tasking of national intelligence collection, analysis, production, and dissemination. The DNI also develops and determines the annual budget for the National Intelligence Program (NIP) and monitors the implementation and execution of the NIP by the heads of IC member organizations. The DNI implements policies and procedures to ensure all-source intelligence includes competitive analysis and that alternative views are brought to the attention of policy makers. Additionally, the Office of the DNI exercises control over the National Intelligence Council, National Counterintelligence Executive, National Counterterrorism Center, and National Counterproliferation Center, and has authority to establish additional national intelligence centers when deemed necessary to address other intelligence priorities, such as regional issues.
The Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD(I))
USDI is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of Defense on all intelligence, CI and security, and other intelligence-related matters. On behalf of the Secretary of Defense, the USD(I) exercises authority, direction, and control of intelligence and CI organizations within DOD to ensure that they are manned, trained, equipped, and organized to support DOD missions and are responsive to DNI requirements.
The Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency
DoDIA advises the Secretary of Defense and Deputy Secretary of Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, CCDRs, and USD(I) on all matters concerning military and military-related intelligence and is the principal DOD intelligence representative in the national foreign intelligence process. The Director of DIA also serves in several additional capacities. As Director, Defense Joint Intelligence Operations Center (DJIOC), the Director coordinates intelligence support to meet combatant command requirements and reports to the Secretary of Defense through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Director also commands the United States Strategic Command's (USSTRATCOM's) Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (JFCC-ISR) which is integrated with the DJIOC and oversees the coordination of global ISR in support of DOD worldwide military operations. Finally, the Director serves as the Defense HUMINT Manager and is responsible for coordinating all DOD HUMINT resources and requirements.
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Chairman of the JCS provides direction to the Joint Staff Director for Intelligence, J-2, to ensure that adequate, timely, and reliable intelligence and CI support is available to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the combatant commands.
The Joint Staff Directorate for Intelligence, J-2
The Joint Staff Directorate for Intelligence is a unique organization, in that it is both a major component of DIA (a combat support agency) and a fully integrated element of the Joint Staff. The J-2 provides continuous intelligence support to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Staff, National Military Command Center (NMCC), and combatant commands in the areas of global I&W and crisis intelligence. The J-2, in cooperation with other DIA elements, provides strategic warning, threat assessments and intelligence-related advice to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It also exercises staff supervision of the intelligence alert center supporting the NMCC and keeps the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff apprised of foreign situations that are relevant to current and potential national security policy, objectives, and strategy. During crises, the intelligence support to the NMCC expands as necessary by utilizing DIA assets to form a working group, intelligence task force or, in the case of a major crisis, an expanded intelligence task force. The Joint Staff J-2 is also responsible for representing and advocating combatant command views and intelligence requirements to the Joint Staff and Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). The Joint Staff J-2 is also responsible for coordinating with the combatant commands and the DJIOC in staffing all intelligence-related Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff orders (e.g., alert orders, planning orders, warning orders) and RFFs.
The Chiefs of the Military Services
The Chiefs of the Military Services and their Service intelligence and CI chiefs and staffs provide intelligence and CI support for departmental missions related to military systems, equipment, and training. They also support national intelligence activities in support of DOD entities, including combatant commands, subordinate joint commands, and Service components of those commands. Service intelligence staffs and organizations produce a broad array of products and services (such as weapons system-specific targeting materials) as well as technical expertise in specialized areas such as IO and foreign weapons systems. At both the component and unit level, Service intelligence personnel are involved in the operation of ISR assets and provide tailored intelligence support for weapons system employment.
An intelligence requirement, stated as a priority for intelligence support, that the commander and staff need to understand the adversary or the operational environment.
Explain Intelligence Oversight and state the publications that govern it.
The duties and responsibilities of the Director of Central Intelligence and the heads of other departments, agencies, and entities engaged in intelligence activities to cooperate with the Congress in the conduct of its responsibilities for oversight of intelligence activities shall be as provided in title 50, United States Code, section 413. The requirements of section 662 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2422), and section 501 of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended (50 U.S.C. 413), shall apply to all special activities as defined in this Order.
Define the difference between a US citizen and a US person with regards to US Intelligence Oversight
United States person means a United States citizen, an alien known by the intelligence agency concerned to be a permanent resident alien, an unincorporated association substantially composed of United States citizens or permanent resident aliens, or a corporation incorporated in the United States, except for a corporation directed and controlled by a foreign government or governments.
Define intelligence preparation of the battlespace environment
Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace. Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB) is the systematic and continuous analysis of the adversary, terrain, and weather in the assigned or potential battlespace. It is a significant element in the Commander's Preparation of the Battlespace and a key part of our decision making process. Its goals include understanding the adversary's forces, doctrine, tactics, and probable courses of action, together with the physical and environmental characteristics of the target area. IPB identifies gaps in knowledge that require intelligence collection efforts. It consists of five four elements:
Define the Battlespace Environment: Defines the area of operations and focuses intelligence assets on the battlespace.
Describe the Battlespaces Effects: Evaluates physical characteristics of the battlespace and their effects on friendly and adversary capabilities to maneuver, attack, employ sensors, and communicate.
Evaluate the threat: Encompasses a detailed study of the threat, identifying adversary capabilities and vulnerabilities.
Determine Threat Courses of Action: Ties the previous steps together providing a predictive analysis of probable adersary courses of action - and friendly force survivability in each case.
Define the mission of Fleet Intelligence Office and its two subordinate commands
To provide fleet intelligence and support DoD mission accomplishment.
Explain ISR mission requirements and fundamentals
To facilitate the optimum utilization of all available ISR assets, an ISR CONOPS should be developed in conjunction with operational planning. The ISR CONOPS should be based on the collection strategy and ISR execution planning, and should be developed jointly by the joint force J-2 and J-3. It should address how all available ISR assets and associated tasking, processing, exploitation, and dissemination (TPED) infrastructure, to include coalition and commercial assets, will be used to answer the joint force's intelligence requirements.
The ISR CONOPS should also identify and discuss any ISR asset shortfalls relative to the joint force's validated PIRs, and may be used as a vehicle for justifying a request for the allocation of additional national ISR resources. It should also require a periodic evaluation of the capabilities and contributions of all available ISR assets relative to the joint force mission in order to maximize their efficient utilization, and to ensure the timely release of allocated ISR resources when no longer needed by the joint force.
Explain the function of an Intelligence Fusion Cell.
Analyzing all source intelligence information to produce assessments, reports, articles, threat analyses, special
studies etc, responsive to user needs;
Describe the following: HUMINT
Human Intelligence refers to intelligence gathering by means of interpersonal contact
Describe the following: OSINT
Open source intelligence is a form of intelligence collection management that involves finding, selecting, and acquiring information from publicly available sources and analyzing it to produce actionable intelligence
Describe the following: MASINT
Measurement and Signature Intelligence
Technically derived intelligence that detects, locates, tracks, identifies, and describes the unique characteristics of fixed and dynamic target sources. Measurement and signature intelligence capabilities include radar, laser, optical, infrared, acoustic, nuclear radiation, radio frequency, spectroradiometric, and seismic sensing systems as well as gas, liquid, and solid materials sampling and analysis. Also called MASINT.
Describe the following: SIGINT
A category of intelligence comprising either individually or in combination all communications intelligence, electronic intelligence, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however transmitted.
Intelligence derived from communications, electronic, and foreign instrumentation signals. Also called SIGINT.
Describe the following: COMINT
Technical information and intelligence derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients. Also called COMINT.
Describe the following: FISINT
Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence
Technical information and intelligence derived from the intercept of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of non-US aerospace, surface, and subsurface systems. Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence is a subcategory of signals intelligence. Foreign instrumentation signals include but are not limited to telemetry, beaconry, electronic interrogators, and video data links. Also called FISINT. See also signals intelligence.
Describe the following: ELINT
Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources. Also called ELINT.
Describe the following: IMINT
Intelligence derived from the exploitation of collection by visual photography, infrared sensors, lasers, electro-optics, and radar sensors such as synthetic aperture radar wherein images of objects are reproduced optically or electronically on film, electronic display devices, or other media. Also called IMINT.
Give 3 examples of Intelligence briefs
Obsolete and unavailable per NETC Non-Resident Training Courses