SS - The end of Feudalism
Terms in this set (36)
What is a charter?
a written grant of rights and privileges by a ruler or government to a community, class of people, or organization.
What were guilds?
Were organizations or groups of people who work in the same craft or trade.
Each group focused on a specific trade/skill/craft.
They provided a way for skills to be learned and passed down from generation to generation.
Who were apprentices?
A person (usually young people) who works for an expert craftsman/guild master in order to learn a trade or craft.
They were not paid.
What purpose a CATHEDRAL building hold in towns?
They were built to inspire awe.
They were used for important ceremonies and meetings/gatherings, as well as mass.
They were also used as schools.
What were cathedrals?
A large and important Church.
It shows the importance of the Catholic church.
What were some of the key architectural features of a Cathedral?
They were built with GOTHIC STYLE with extensive use of STAINED GLASS WINDOWS, arches and gargoyles.
Their layout was in the shape of a cross with the nave in the center (long isle/central section) and the transepts (shorter arms) at its sides.
the buying and selling of goods
Why were guilds established?
They were set up to make sure their members and costumers were treated fairly and produced quality goods.
They provided help and protection for the people doing in their guild group and it made sure high standards product and service were set.
How did a person became a member of a guild?
A person would have to work through three phases to become a member of a Medieval Guild - Apprentice (learning the trade - not paid - 7 years) in the end of the 7th year the apprentice had to produce a master piece to be approved by his master and become an jouneymen.
Journeyman (Person who has learned a particular trade/craft but has not become an employer or master. They found work "by the day" - paid position)
Master (could set up their own shop and have apprentices)
Examples of Craft Guilds in Europe:
shoe (cobbler) and clothing (seamstress) making, blacksmith
How did guilds help members and family members?
Guild members payed dues to their guild and the money was used to provide protection, food and help when members and family members were in need.
What role did merchants play in the growth of medieval European towns?
When Europe started to grow economically and more goods were produced. Merchants became dealers, employers and ship owners sending their carriers along a network of trade routes linking the major European cities.
What were merchants fair like?
They were large and sold many goods. They were also very crowded because they attracted merchants form many countries and they had goods from faraway lands
How did merchants become the most wealthy and powerful members of town?
Because they sold high demand (overpriced) goods from distant lands and they started to dominate the town's business and became part of the town's council.
How were Jews often mistreated in medieval Europe?
They were mistreated because they were not Christians so they couldn't own land, and lords took their property at will and sometimes they were the victims of violence.
They could work as bankers and moneylenders because these kind of jobs were seen as sinful by the church so Christians were not allowed to do them.
How did people get the Bubonic plague
It was mainly spread by infected fleas and rats that were attracted to the unsanitary environment. People got infected when they were bitten by the infected rats and fleas.
Why the Bubonic Plague is considered a cause to the end of feudalism?
Because it caused a massive numbers of deaths which led to a significant drop in population causing a labor shortage that helped serfs to leave the farm lands and go look for higher wages. Towns and cities grew causing The decline of the guild system.
There was a shift of power from the lords to the common people.
What were the 4 humors?
A healthy person should have the amount of their 4 humors balanced/even.
How did doctors treated the sick if there was an unbalance of one of their humors?
They used the "bloodletting" method of healing to restore the balance by body and spirit.
They would cut open a vein and let the "contaminated blood" spill out. Or they would use leeches to to suck the blood out.
What did the barbers do in Medieval Europe?
They performed surgeries and also worked as dentists pulling rotten teeth.
What were pilgrimages?
Journeys to a Holy site/Land.
People believed that going on pilgrimages showed their devotion to God as an act of penance for their sins in hopes to be cured.
What were the roles of medieval folk healers in medicine?
Because the healers beloved in the existence of spirits, a combination of both spiritual and natural healing was used to treat the sick. Herbal remedies created at home, known as Herbals, along with prayer and other religious rituals were used in their treatments.
What was the symptoms of the Black plague?
High fever, vomiting, coughing, sneezing fits and large swellings or bumps in the body.
In the middle ages, What did the Common Law mean?
It means that the law was intended to be the same on all pot England. So when a judge would decide a case, he would study similar cases in the "YEAR BOOK" and make his decision.
What were mystery/miracle plays?
The dramatization of a story from the Bible or the life of a saint.
It was for entertainment.
What was Henry II's legal reforms?
He created the Common Law and a jury system.
He also strengthened the power of the royal courts.
King Henry II youngest son.
Lost most of England's land to France
Forced barons to help him invade France and when they didn't, the king charged taxes to pay for the mercenaries he hired. He didn't win the war.
What was the Magna Carta?
A treaty signed by King John of England and a group of English barons in response to years of the king's misrule and excessive taxation. Especially after the King used the taxes to pay for the mercenaries he hired to help him invade France.
Magna Carta meaning
What were the 2 major points of the Magna Carta?
1. The 12th article - No taxes unless by "common consent of our kingdom" - NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION"
2. The 39th article - No freeman could be tried except by the "lawful judgment of his peers" - creating the beginning of our jury system.
why the magna carta caused feudalism to end?
Because it limited the King's power and gave the noble more legal rights.
What is Parliament?
the branch of the government that makes the laws in England.
The hundred year war was fought between?
France and England
Why did the 100 Year War cause the end of Feudalism?
Because it helped to shift the power from feudal lords to monarchs and to common people.
What was the Bubonic Plague?
Also known as the Black Death.
A deadly contagious disease caused by bacteria and spread by rats and fleas
It killed 1/3 of Europe population in only 4 years.
The Constitution of Clarendon
document issued by king Henry II that spelled out the king's traditional rights.
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