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half-off-base placement

base control where the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its base section and the tool is positioned half off its base section

hydrogen bonds

relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attrsction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by water, as in wet setting, or heat, as in thermal styling, and re-form as the hair drives or cools.

hydroxide relaxers

with a very high pH of 13


process by which hydrogen relaxers permanently straighten hair; breaks the hair's disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthioine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair

low-pH waves

perms that work at a low pH and use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate

metal hydroxide relaxers

ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium,potassiun, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen


process of stopping the action of a permanent wave solution and hardening the hair in its new form by the aplication of a chemical solution called the neutralizer.

no-base relaxers

relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream

normalizing solutions

conditioners with an acidic pH that condition the hair and restore the natural pH prior to shampooing

off-base placement

base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees below perpendicular to its base section and the tool is positioned completely off its base section

on-base placement

base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree anglebeyond perpendicular to its base section and the rod is positioned on its base section

peptide or end bonds

chemical bonds that join amino acids together

polypeptide chains

amino acids chains joined together by peptide bonds

salt bonds

relatively weak phusical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by changes in pH, as in permanent waving, and reform whtn the pH returns to normal.

single flat wrap

perm wrap similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped

soft curl permanents

combination of thio relaxer and thio permanents that are wrapped on larger tools; used to make exisiting curls larger and looser

spiral perms

perms in which the hair wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the tool; depending on the tool, the hair may be wound from the scapl toward the ends or from the ends toward the scalp

spiral perm technique

perm wrap done at an angle that causes the hair to spiral along the lenght of the tool; particulary effective on longer, thicker hair

straight rods

perm rods that are equal in circumference along their entire length or curling area

thioglycolic acid

colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant ordor; provides the hydrogen that causes the reduction reaction in permanent waving solutions

thio relaxers

usually have a pH above 10 and a higher concentration of ammonium thioglycolate than is used in permanent waving

thio-free waves

perms that use an ingredient other than ammonium thioglycolate as the primary reducing agent

true acid waves

perms that have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to speed the processing, process more slowly than alkaline waves and do not usually produce as firm a curl

weave technique

wrapping technique that uses zigzag partingsto divide base areas

acid-balanced waves

perms with a pH between 7.8 and 8.2 that process at room temperature; process more quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves

alkaline waves or cold waves

permanent waves that process at room temperature without the addition of heat; most alkaline waves have a associated with their use.

ammonia-free waves

perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporte as readily as ammonia so ther is very little odor associated with their use

ammonium thioglycolate(ATG)

main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents

base cream

oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing

base control

position on the rod in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.

base direction

the angle at which the tool is positioned on the head also the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped

base relaxers

relaxers that require the application of a base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer

base sections

subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping;one rod is normally placed on each base section.

basic perm wrap

perm wrap in which all tools within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal size bases; all base sections are horizontal, with the same length and width as the perm tool

bookend wrap

perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.

bricklay perm wrap

perm wrap similar to actual tecnique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from eachother row by row.

chemical hair relaxing

process of rearranging the basic structure of extremely curly hair into a straight form

chemical texture services

hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.

concave rods

perm rods that have a smaller circumference in the center that increases to a larger circumference on the ends

croquignole perms

perms in which the hair strands are wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the perm rod,in overlapping concentric layers.

curvature perm wrap

perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head

disulfide bonds

side bonds between the polypeptide chains in the cortex; join cysteine sulfur atom on one polypeptide chin with cysteine sulfur atoms on neighboring polypeptide chains to form cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine

double flat wrap

perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and one end paper is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped

double tool (piggyback) technique

perm wrap in which two tools are used for one strand of hair one on top of the other

endothermic waves

perm activated by an outside heat source usually a conventional hood type hair dryer

papers or end wraps

absorbant papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods

exothermic waves

perm that creates an exothermic chemical retion that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing

glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)

main active ingredients in true acid and acid balanced waving lotions that effectively reduces the pH

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