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half-off-base placement
base control where the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its base section and the tool is positioned half off its base section
hydrogen bonds
relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attrsction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by water, as in wet setting, or heat, as in thermal styling, and re-form as the hair drives or cools.
hydroxide relaxers
with a very high pH of 13
process by which hydrogen relaxers permanently straighten hair; breaks the hair's disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthioine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair
low-pH waves
perms that work at a low pH and use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate
metal hydroxide relaxers
ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium,potassiun, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen
process of stopping the action of a permanent wave solution and hardening the hair in its new form by the aplication of a chemical solution called the neutralizer.
no-base relaxers
relaxers that do not require application of a protective base cream
normalizing solutions
conditioners with an acidic pH that condition the hair and restore the natural pH prior to shampooing
off-base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degrees below perpendicular to its base section and the tool is positioned completely off its base section
on-base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at a 45-degree anglebeyond perpendicular to its base section and the rod is positioned on its base section
peptide or end bonds
chemical bonds that join amino acids together
polypeptide chains
amino acids chains joined together by peptide bonds
salt bonds
relatively weak phusical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by changes in pH, as in permanent waving, and reform whtn the pH returns to normal.
single flat wrap
perm wrap similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped
soft curl permanents
combination of thio relaxer and thio permanents that are wrapped on larger tools; used to make exisiting curls larger and looser
spiral perms
perms in which the hair wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the tool; depending on the tool, the hair may be wound from the scapl toward the ends or from the ends toward the scalp
spiral perm technique
perm wrap done at an angle that causes the hair to spiral along the lenght of the tool; particulary effective on longer, thicker hair
straight rods
perm rods that are equal in circumference along their entire length or curling area
thioglycolic acid
colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant ordor; provides the hydrogen that causes the reduction reaction in permanent waving solutions
thio relaxers
usually have a pH above 10 and a higher concentration of ammonium thioglycolate than is used in permanent waving
thio-free waves
perms that use an ingredient other than ammonium thioglycolate as the primary reducing agent
true acid waves
perms that have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to speed the processing, process more slowly than alkaline waves and do not usually produce as firm a curl
weave technique
wrapping technique that uses zigzag partingsto divide base areas
acid-balanced waves
perms with a pH between 7.8 and 8.2 that process at room temperature; process more quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves
alkaline waves or cold waves
permanent waves that process at room temperature without the addition of heat; most alkaline waves have a associated with their use.
ammonia-free waves
perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporte as readily as ammonia so ther is very little odor associated with their use
ammonium thioglycolate(ATG)
main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents
base cream
oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing
base control
position on the rod in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
base direction
the angle at which the tool is positioned on the head also the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped
base relaxers
relaxers that require the application of a base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer
base sections
subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping;one rod is normally placed on each base section.
basic perm wrap
perm wrap in which all tools within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal size bases; all base sections are horizontal, with the same length and width as the perm tool
bookend wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
bricklay perm wrap
perm wrap similar to actual tecnique of bricklaying; base sections are offset from eachother row by row.
chemical hair relaxing
process of rearranging the basic structure of extremely curly hair into a straight form
chemical texture services
hair services that cause a chemical change that permanently alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
concave rods
perm rods that have a smaller circumference in the center that increases to a larger circumference on the ends
croquignole perms
perms in which the hair strands are wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the perm rod,in overlapping concentric layers.
curvature perm wrap
perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
disulfide bonds
side bonds between the polypeptide chains in the cortex; join cysteine sulfur atom on one polypeptide chin with cysteine sulfur atoms on neighboring polypeptide chains to form cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine
double flat wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under and one end paper is placed over the strand of hair being wrapped
double tool (piggyback) technique
perm wrap in which two tools are used for one strand of hair one on top of the other
endothermic waves
perm activated by an outside heat source usually a conventional hood type hair dryer
papers or end wraps
absorbant papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods
exothermic waves
perm that creates an exothermic chemical retion that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing
glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)
main active ingredients in true acid and acid balanced waving lotions that effectively reduces the pH