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28 terms

AP Psychology Test: Human Development

STUDY
PLAY
Nature vs. Nurture
is a person's development determined by heredity or by environment
Chromosomes
are made up of genes which are made up of DNA
Genotype
an individual's genetic makeup
Phenotype
how a given genotype is expressed
Dominant genes
expressed in phenotype whenever present in genotype
Recessive genes
expressed in phenotype only when paired with a similar recessive gene
Ovum or germinal
1st two weeks of conception, a mass of multiplying cells
Embryo
2-8th week, vital organs begin to form
Fetus
2 months to birth, completing development
Critical period
time when things must begin to development or will never develop, it exists during the embryo stage
Moro reflex
extension of arms when infant feels loss of support
Palmar reflex
hand grasping
Rooting reflex
turns toward object brushing cheek and attempts to suck
Proximodistal principle
center outward direction of motor development
Cephalocaudal principle
head to foot direction of motor development
Temperament
a child's characteristic mood and activity level
Easy infants
about 40% of infants are adaptable to new situations, predictable in their rhythmicity or schedule, positive in mood
Difficult infants
about 10% of infants are intense in their reactions, not very adaptable to new situations, slightly negative mood, irregular body rhythms
Slow-to-warm up infants
about 15% of infants initally withdraws when approached, but may later warm up
Average infants
about 35% of infants did not fit completely into any of the other categories
Goodness of fit
an environment where an infant's temperament matches the opportunities, expectations, and demands the infant encounters
Attachment
close emotional relationship between an infant and his or her caretakers
Secure attachments
parent serves as secure base from which to explore
Insecure attachment - anxious ambivalent
tend to cling to parent and be angry when parent returns after a separation
Insecure attachment - avoidant
seek little contact with parent
Authoritative parenting style
affectionate and loving, sets limits, engage in verbal give and take
Authoritarian parenting style
demand unquestioning obedience, use less affection
Permissive parenting style
make few demands, allow children to make own decisions, use inconsistent discipline