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Nature vs. Nurture

is a person's development determined by heredity or by environment


are made up of genes which are made up of DNA


an individual's genetic makeup


how a given genotype is expressed

Dominant genes

expressed in phenotype whenever present in genotype

Recessive genes

expressed in phenotype only when paired with a similar recessive gene

Ovum or germinal

1st two weeks of conception, a mass of multiplying cells


2-8th week, vital organs begin to form


2 months to birth, completing development

Critical period

time when things must begin to development or will never develop, it exists during the embryo stage

Moro reflex

extension of arms when infant feels loss of support

Palmar reflex

hand grasping

Rooting reflex

turns toward object brushing cheek and attempts to suck

Proximodistal principle

center outward direction of motor development

Cephalocaudal principle

head to foot direction of motor development


a child's characteristic mood and activity level

Easy infants

about 40% of infants are adaptable to new situations, predictable in their rhythmicity or schedule, positive in mood

Difficult infants

about 10% of infants are intense in their reactions, not very adaptable to new situations, slightly negative mood, irregular body rhythms

Slow-to-warm up infants

about 15% of infants initally withdraws when approached, but may later warm up

Average infants

about 35% of infants did not fit completely into any of the other categories

Goodness of fit

an environment where an infant's temperament matches the opportunities, expectations, and demands the infant encounters


close emotional relationship between an infant and his or her caretakers

Secure attachments

parent serves as secure base from which to explore

Insecure attachment - anxious ambivalent

tend to cling to parent and be angry when parent returns after a separation

Insecure attachment - avoidant

seek little contact with parent

Authoritative parenting style

affectionate and loving, sets limits, engage in verbal give and take

Authoritarian parenting style

demand unquestioning obedience, use less affection

Permissive parenting style

make few demands, allow children to make own decisions, use inconsistent discipline

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