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31 terms

upper airway disorders and pulmonary infections

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Pulmonary defense mechanisms
mechanical barriers and non-specific immune mechanisms
Nose
a mechanical barrier that traps most large airborne particles due to the presence of turbinates, which cause the airflow in the nose to be of turbulent type (>5 microns)
Mucociliary Blanket
a mechanical barrier that is the lining of the epithelium which is composed of mucus type material that traps mid sized particles, and this mucus is moved outward by continuous movement of cilia (3-5 microns)
Cough
a mechanical barrier which helps to clear aspirated or inhaled particles as well as airway mucus
Alveolar macrophages
an immune defense mechanism that are the most important phagocytic cells in the lung which serve to protect the lung from injuries by small particles and microorganisms (<3 microns)
Neutrophils
an immune defense mechanism that is important in defense against bacteria and fungi
Antioxidants
an immune defense mechanism that protects the lungs against the harmful injuries of toxic gases and pollutants
Congenital Anomalies
abnormalities than involve incomplete of defective of part of or entire lung that can be asymptomatic or mild and can lead to moderate or severe respiratory distress. The severity of symptoms depends on the side of the abnormality.
Pulmonary Hypoplasia
a congenital anomaly in which the normally lung does not fully form; genes that turn off growth in-utero get turned on too early. Can be an entire lung, can be just part of the lung, or can be a generalized incorrect formation.
Bronchial Atresia
a congenital anomaly in which a segmental bronchus does not communicate with the central airways
Bronchogenic Cyst
a congenital anomaly in which an intra-pulmonary or extra-pulmonary growth without alveoli, normal ventilation, or gas exchange. Symptoms of cough and dyspnea are related to the location. Complications including infection and bleeding can occur. Intrapulmonary is more likely to get infected.
Sequestration
a very uncommon congenital anomaly in which a little lung develops outside or inside of the normal lung; doesn't have normal tissue or a connection to the airway. Generally has a systemic circulation form the aorta directly, and can cause bleeding or infections. Most of the time the symptoms are really minimal.
Bronchiolitis
a viral infection of the airway that involves predominantly peripheral airways that is typically seen in children.
Bronchitis
an airway infection that involves the central airway that is more commonly seen in adults; can be viral or bacterial. Main symptoms are cough, sputum, and fever.
Atelactasis
a bronchial obstruction becomes complete and causes collapse of lung tissue distal to the area of obstruction. Obstructions in kids are generally foreign bodies, in adults they are foreign bodies and sometimes tumors
Bronchiectasis
permanent dilation of the airway secondary to destruction of the elastic and muscular elements of the bronchial wall. This can be congenital or secondary to obstruction or infection.
Pneumonia
infection of the pulmonary parenchyma which can be caused by bacteria, fungi, and other organisms.
Community-acquired pneumonia
occurs in patients outside the hospital. upper airway is colonized by the infectious organism, the organism is aspirated into the lungs, parenchymal inflammation results. Generally affects those with impaired immune systems.
Nosocomial Pneumonia
occurs in patients who are already hospitalized and is caused by organisms prevalent in hospital environments
Empyema
an infection in the pleural space which can complicate a lung abscess or pneumonia
streptococcus pneumoniae
the organism causing most community acquired pneumonias
Mycoplasma pneumonia
community acquired pneumonia that causes gradual onset of respiratory symptoms and bronchopneumonia that is typically seen in young adults
Legionella Pneumonia
a pneumonia that can be community acquired or nosocomial that spreads through water environments and causes multi-lobular involvement and bronchopneumonia
Fungal Pneumonia
can be either community acquired in a normal host, or acquired in an immune compromised host
Blastomycosis
a fungal pneumonia seen in the midwest caused by a fungi growing in most vegetation. Symptoms range from minor to life-threatening, and the parenchyma and lymph nodes are involved.
Opportunistic Pneumonia
occurs in immuno-compromised hosts and usually involved an organism that would not otherwise infect the individual. Can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms
Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia
PCP. Occurs in the immune compromised host and has symptoms that range from minimal to severe progressive respiratory failure. Treatments include antibiotics, corticosteroids, and supportive care.
Pulmonary Aspergillosis
seen in patients with sever neutropenia and other immune compromised states. It manifests by diffuse nodular lesions which frequently cavitate and invade the pulmonary blood vessels; often fatal.
Pneumococcal Vaccine
very effective in preventing or significantly reducing the severity of pneumococcal pneumonia. Patients with chronic medical problem and those above age 65 should receive this vaccine.
Lung Abscess
the accumulation of pus in an area of destroyed lung parenchyma. Typically caused by anaerobes aspirated from the mouth and upper airway. Poor dental hygiene and alcoholism are the main risk factors.
Hemoptysis
coughing up blood