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106 terms

Chapter 8 - Joints

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articulation
site where two or more bones meet
synarthroses
immovable joints
amphiarthroses
slightly movable joint
diarthroses
freely movable joint
fibrous
type of joint that bones are joined by dense fibrous connective tissue
fibrous
type of joint that has no joint cavity
fibrous
type of joint that most are synarthrotic
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
3 types of fibrous joints
sutures
type of fibrous joint that is rigid, interlocking joints containing short connective tissue fibers
sutures
in middle age, these are called synostoses
syndesmoses
type of fibrous joint that bones are connected by ligaments
syndesmoses
type of fibrous joint that movement varies from immovable to slighty movable
gomphoses
type of fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket joint of teeth in alveolar sockets
cartilaginous joints
bones united by cartilage
cartilaginour
no joint cavity
synchondroses, symphyses
types of cartilaginous joints
synchondroses
type of joint that a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones, all are synarthrotic
symphyses
type of joint that hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surfaces and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage
symphyses
strong, flexible ampiarthroses
synovial
type of joint that all are diarthrotic and include all limb joints
bursae
flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes
bursae
contain synovial fluid
tendon sheath
elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon
origin
attachment tot he immovable bone
insertion
attachment to the movable bone
nonaxial
slipping movements only
uniaxial
movement in one plane
biaxial
movement in two planes
multiaxial
movement in or around all three planes
gliding
movement of one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface
flexion
decreases the angle of the joint
extension
increases the angle of the joint
hyperextension
excessive extension beyond normal range of motion
abduction
movement away from the midline
adduction
movement toward the midline
rotation
the turning of a bone around its own long axis
supination
turning hand backward
promation
turning hand forward
dorsiflexion
upward movement
plantar flexion
downward movement
inversion
turn sole medially
eversion
turn sole laterally
protraction
anterior movement
retracation
posterior movement
elevation
lifting a body part superiorly
depression
moving a body part inferiorly
opposition of the thumb
movement in the saddle joint so that the thumb touches the tips of the other fingers
plane joints
nonaxial joints, flat articular surfaces, short gliding movements
hinge joints
uniaxial joints, motion along a single plane, flexion and extension only
pivot joints
rounded end of one bone conforms to a "sleeve," or ring of another bone, uniaxial movement only
condyloid joints
biaxial joints, both articular surfaces are oval, permit all angular movement
saddle joints
biaxial, allow greater freedom of movement than condyloid joints, each articular surface has both concave and convex areas
ball and socket joints
multiaxial joints, the most freely moving synovial joints
knee joint
largest, most complex joint of body
femoropatellar joint
plane joint, allows gliding motion during knee flexion
knee joint
at least 12 associated bursae
capsular and extracapsular
help prevent hyperextension
intracapsular ligaments
anterior and posterior curciate ligaments, prevent anterior-posterior displacement
coracohumeral ligament
helps support the weight of the upper limb
three glenohumeral ligaments
somewhat weak anterior reinforcements
hinge
depression and elevation of mandible
sprains
the ligaments are stretched or torn
cartilage tears
due to compression and shear stress
dislocations
occur when bones are forced out of alignment
subluxation
partial dislocation of a joint
arthritis
most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.
gomphosis
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint
prevent hyperextension of the knee
The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.
provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.
symphysi
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of
movement is a _______
syndesmosis
On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?
bursae
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where
friction develops are called ________.
amphiarthroses
Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________
Synchondrose
________ are cartilaginous joints.
plane
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint
cruciate ligaments
The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the
movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.
yes
are all synovial joints freely movable?
permit essentially no movement
Synarthrotic joints ________.
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
Fibrous joints are classified as ________.
hyaline cartilage
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.
It contains hyaluronic acid
Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following
statements is true about this fluid?
cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?
semilunar cartilage pads
What are menisci?
Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?
abduction
What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane
called?
feet
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.
multiaxial
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint
uniaxial rotation
Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as ________.
rare because of the ligament reinforcement
Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.
anular
Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?
the patellar ligament
Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?
medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is
(are) damaged as a result
osteoarthritis
Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of
arthritis?
excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints
What can cause gouty arthritis?
plantar flexion
Pointing the toes is an example of ________.
radius
The anular ligament surrounds the head of the ________
the hip and shoulder
Multiaxial joints of the body include ________.
hinge joint
Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are
characteristics of what type of joint?
parallel
Joints develop in _______ with bones.
the radius and ulna along its length
An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.
lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements
Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.
They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.
Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?
The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.
Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that
articulate to form a saddle joint.
act as friction-reducing structures
Tendon sheaths ________.
tendon sheath
Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?
number of bones in the joint
Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces of
diarthroses in contact?