Chapter 8 - Joints

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site where two or more bones meet


immovable joints


slightly movable joint


freely movable joint


type of joint that bones are joined by dense fibrous connective tissue


type of joint that has no joint cavity


type of joint that most are synarthrotic

sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

3 types of fibrous joints


type of fibrous joint that is rigid, interlocking joints containing short connective tissue fibers


in middle age, these are called synostoses


type of fibrous joint that bones are connected by ligaments


type of fibrous joint that movement varies from immovable to slighty movable


type of fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket joint of teeth in alveolar sockets

cartilaginous joints

bones united by cartilage


no joint cavity

synchondroses, symphyses

types of cartilaginous joints


type of joint that a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones, all are synarthrotic


type of joint that hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surfaces and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage


strong, flexible ampiarthroses


type of joint that all are diarthrotic and include all limb joints


flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes


contain synovial fluid

tendon sheath

elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon


attachment tot he immovable bone


attachment to the movable bone


slipping movements only


movement in one plane


movement in two planes


movement in or around all three planes


movement of one flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface


decreases the angle of the joint


increases the angle of the joint


excessive extension beyond normal range of motion


movement away from the midline


movement toward the midline


the turning of a bone around its own long axis


turning hand backward


turning hand forward


upward movement

plantar flexion

downward movement


turn sole medially


turn sole laterally


anterior movement


posterior movement


lifting a body part superiorly


moving a body part inferiorly

opposition of the thumb

movement in the saddle joint so that the thumb touches the tips of the other fingers

plane joints

nonaxial joints, flat articular surfaces, short gliding movements

hinge joints

uniaxial joints, motion along a single plane, flexion and extension only

pivot joints

rounded end of one bone conforms to a "sleeve," or ring of another bone, uniaxial movement only

condyloid joints

biaxial joints, both articular surfaces are oval, permit all angular movement

saddle joints

biaxial, allow greater freedom of movement than condyloid joints, each articular surface has both concave and convex areas

ball and socket joints

multiaxial joints, the most freely moving synovial joints

knee joint

largest, most complex joint of body

femoropatellar joint

plane joint, allows gliding motion during knee flexion

knee joint

at least 12 associated bursae

capsular and extracapsular

help prevent hyperextension

intracapsular ligaments

anterior and posterior curciate ligaments, prevent anterior-posterior displacement

coracohumeral ligament

helps support the weight of the upper limb

three glenohumeral ligaments

somewhat weak anterior reinforcements


depression and elevation of mandible


the ligaments are stretched or torn

cartilage tears

due to compression and shear stress


occur when bones are forced out of alignment


partial dislocation of a joint


most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.


A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint

prevent hyperextension of the knee

The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.

provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.


A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of
movement is a _______


On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?


Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where
friction develops are called ________.


Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________


________ are cartilaginous joints.


The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint

cruciate ligaments

The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the
movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.


are all synovial joints freely movable?

permit essentially no movement

Synarthrotic joints ________.

sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

Fibrous joints are classified as ________.

hyaline cartilage

In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.

It contains hyaluronic acid

Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following
statements is true about this fluid?

cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?

semilunar cartilage pads

What are menisci?

Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?


What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane


The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.


The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint

uniaxial rotation

Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as ________.

rare because of the ligament reinforcement

Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.


Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?

the patellar ligament

Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?

medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is
(are) damaged as a result


Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of

excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints

What can cause gouty arthritis?

plantar flexion

Pointing the toes is an example of ________.


The anular ligament surrounds the head of the ________

the hip and shoulder

Multiaxial joints of the body include ________.

hinge joint

Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are
characteristics of what type of joint?


Joints develop in _______ with bones.

the radius and ulna along its length

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.

lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.

They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.

Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?

The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.

Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that
articulate to form a saddle joint.

act as friction-reducing structures

Tendon sheaths ________.

tendon sheath

Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?

number of bones in the joint

Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces of
diarthroses in contact?

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