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Ear, Mouth, Nose, Throat (H&P)
Terms in this set (60)
firm, nodular, hypertrophic mass of scar tissue extending beyond the area of injury; most common on shoulders and upper chest; more common on darker-skinned people
deposit of uric acid crystals characteristic of chronic tophaceous gout; appears as hard nodules in the helix or antihelix and may dishcharge chalky white crystals through the skin; usually develops after chronic sustained high blood levels of uric acid
dome-shaped lump in the dermis forms a benign closed firm sac attached to the epidermis
chronic inflammatory lesion starts as painful, tender papule on the helix or antihelix; can move to ulceration and crusting; redding may occur
basal cell carcinoma
common slow-growing malignancy that rarely metastasizes; growth and ulceration may occur; raised nodule with telangiectasia vessels; more frequent in fair-skinned people overexposed to sunlight
associated with rheumatoid arthritis; small lumps on the helix or antihelix and additional nodules elsewhere on the hands, along the surface of the ulna distal to the elbow, and on the knees and heels; ulceration can result
pinkish gray, pearly
what color is the normal ear drum?
what part of the ear drum lies above the short process of the malleus?
holes in the ear drum
purulent infections of the middle ear are the most common cause of what?
central and marginal
two types of perforated ear drums
deposition of hyaline material within the layers of the tympanic membrane that sometimes follows a severe episode of otitis media; does not usually impair hearing nor is clinically significant;
drum is pulled medially, away from examiner's eye; malleolar folds are tightened into sharp outlines; the short process protrudes sharply and the handle of the malleus is pulled inward at the umbo, looks shortened, and is more horizontal
an abnormality of the ear drum caused by viral upper respiratory infections or by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure
eustachian tube cannot equalize the air pressure in the middle ear with that of the outside air; air is partly or completely absorbed into the bloodstream so serous fluid accumulates there instead.
what color is the fluid behind the eardrum in serous effusion?
acute otitis media with purulent effusion
caused by bacterial infection;
the eardrum loosens, loses its landmarks, and bulges laterally toward examiner's eye.
viral infection characterized by painful hemorrhagic vesicles that appear on the tympanic membrane, the ear canal, or both.
-blood-tinged discharge from ear
-conductive hearing loss
true or false: conductive loss usually happens in childhood and young adulthood, up to 40 years of age
hearing loss where noisy environments make hearing worse
the impaired ear
in the weber test, the sound lateralizes to what ear in conductive hearing loss?
during the rinne test, bone conduction is longer than air conduction in what pattern of hearing loss?
inner ear disorder involves cochlear nerve and neuronal impulse transmission to the brain; causes:
-loud noise exposure
-inner ear infections
-congential and familial disorders
external or middle ear disorder impairs sound conduction to inner ear; causes:
-otosclerosis of ossicles
softening of the skin at the angles of the mouth, followed by fissuring; may be due to nutritional deficiency, or more commonly to overclosure of the mouth (people with no teeth or with ill-fitting dentures); can lead to secondary infection with Candidiasis
excessive exposure to sunlight around mouth and affects primarily the lower lip; lip loses normal redness and may become scaly, somewhat thickened, and slight everted; be alert to carcinomas
recurrent and painful vesicular eruptions of the lips and surrounding skin; clusters of vesicles first, leading to yellow-brown crusts
diffuse, nonpitting, tense swelling of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue; allergic in nature but does not itch
hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
multiple small red spots on lips and may also be visible on the face and hands, and in the mouth; dilated capillaries and may bleed when traumatized ;affected people often have nosebleeds and GI bleeding
pigmented spots on the lips that are more prominent than freckling of surrounding skin; may also be found on face and hands
Chancre of syphilis
firm, buttonlike lesion on lip that ulcerates and may become crusted; primary form of the disease
carcinoma of the lip
appears as scaly plaque, an ulcer with or without a crust, or as a nodular lesion, usually on the lower lip; fair skin and prolonged sun exposure are common risk factors
fever and enlarged cervical nodes increases the probability of group A step infection or infectious mono; white exudate on the tonsils
throat is dull red, with gray exudate on the uvula, pharynx, and tongue; airway may become obstructed; rare but serious
thick white plaques adherent to underlying mucosa; thrush on the palate; predisposing factors:
-prolonged treatment with antibiotics or steroids
deep purple lesions that can be raised or flat in patient's with AIDs
midline bony growth in the hard palate that is fairly common in adults; harmless
normal sebaceous glands that appear as small yellowish spots in the buccal mucosa or on the lips
early sign of measles; small white specks that resemble grains of salt on a red background; usually appear on buccal mucosa near 1st and 2nd molars
small red spots that result when blood escapes from capillaries into tissues; most often caused in mouth when accidentally bite cheek
thickened white patch in the mouth; can lead to cancer
teenagers and young adults
What age group is marginal gingivitis most common in?
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
uncommon form of gingivitis that is accompanied by fever, malaise, and enlarged lymph nodes; process spreads along gym margins, where gray membrane develops; occurs suddenly in adolescents and young adults
gums enlarge due to dilantin therapy, puberty, pregnancy, and leukemia
ginvgival enlargement that is localized and forms a tumor-like mass that is red, soft, and bleeds easily; usually originates in an interdental papilla
yellow-brown dentin of the teeth is exposed; usually in older people
what is a common cause of erosion of the teeth?
teeth are a sign of congenital syphilis; smaller, more widely spaced than normal, and notched on their biting surfaces.
True or false: hairy leukoplakia is found on the sides of the tongue like candidiasis and can be scraped off
what kind of tongue suggests a deficiency in riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, vitamin B12, pyridoxine, iron, or treatment with chemo?
what kind of tongue can either follow antibiotic therapy or occurs spontaneously?
the dorsum of the tongue shows scattered smooth red areas denuded of papillae; scattered appearance of both normal rough and coated areas.
rounded bony growths on the inner surfaces of the mandible; typically bilateral, asymptomatic, and harmless
floor of the mouth
what is a common location for carcinoma of the mouth?
small purplish or blue-black round swellings appearing under the tongue with age
real name for canker sore
thyroid enlargement caused by Grave's disease, Hashimoto's hyroiditis, and endemic goiter; no discretely palpable nodules
thyroid enlargement; may be a cyst, a benign tumor, or one nodule within a multinodular gland; raises questions are malignancy; risk factors are:
-fixation to surrounding tissues
-enlarged cervical nodes
-occurrence in males
Does an enlarged gland with two or more nodules suggest a metabolic or neoplastic process?
positive family hx and continuing nodular enlargement
How do you know when a multinodular goiter is possibly malignant?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Patho Cell injury
Primary skin lesions
Patho cell organelles fxn
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