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32 terms

Pshychology 151: Chapter 7

STUDY
PLAY
memory
An initial record or representation of some prior event or experiences
encoding
Processing information into the memory system
storage
Retaining information over time
retrieval
Recovering information from memory storage
sensory memory
This first memory stage holds sensory information. It has a relatively large capacity, but duration is only a few seconds
short-term memory
This second memory stage temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term. Its capacity is limited to five to nine items, and its duration is about 30 seconds
chunking
The act of grouping seperate pieces of informatino into a significant unit (or chunk)
maintenance rehearsal
Repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory
long-term memory
This third memory stage stores information for long periods. Its capacity is limitless; its duration is relativly permanent
explicit/declarative memory
The subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information, and personal life experiences
implicit/nondeclarative memory
The subsystem within long-term memory that consists of unconscious procdural skills, simple classically conditioned responses and priming
elaborative rehearsal
The process of linking new information to previously stored material, the immediate goal is to understand not memorize
retrieval cue
A clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from long-term memory
encoding specificity principle
Retrieval of information is improved when the conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions that existed when the information was encoded
long-term potentiation
Long-lasting increase in neural excitability believed to be a biological mechanism for learning and memory
Alsheimer's disease
Progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss
misinformation effect
Distortion of a memory by misleading post- event information
information-processing model
the barrage of information that we encounter every
traditional three-stage memory model
the model that has three different storage boxes or memory stages that hold and process information (sensory, short, and long term memory)
working memory
another name for short-term memory
retrograde amnesia
Is a temporary memory loss, old memories are lost and new memories are ok
anterograde amnesia
Is most often permanent memory loss, but patients have implicit/nondeclarative tasks. old memerioes are ok, and can't form new memories
retroactive interference
Occurs when new information (such as one's new phone number) interferes with the old information (such as one's former number)
proactive interference
Occurs when old information interferes with new information (calling a new partner by an old partner's name)
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
The feeling that at any second, a word or event you are trying to remember and perhaps can almost remember will pop out from the "- - - -."
serial position effect
When one remebers a list of words to learn and recalls the words at the beginning (primary) and the end of the list (recency)
source amnesia
Forgetting the true source of a memory
sleeper effect
When you dismiss unreliable information for reliable information, then forget that reliable information and then you go back to the unreliable information and is no longer discounted
distributed practice
Spacing learning periods, with rest periods between sessions
massed practice
When you cramm for a test, time spent learning is massed into long, unbroken intervals
repression
The supposed unconscious coping mechanism by which we prevent anxiety-provoking thoughts form reaching consciousness
mnemonic devices
A trick to help give your memory a boost, and encoding the items in a special way
Ex: acronyms