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16 terms

Sexual Reproduction

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Sexual Reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
Asexual Reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Differentiation
(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
DNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
RNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
Transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Replication
(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
Amino Acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
Base Pairing Rules
The rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA.
Nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Phosphate
makes up the sides of the DNA ladder with deoxyribose
Sugar
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
Nitrogen Base
a DNA nucleotide containing nitrogen, a sugar molecule, and a phosphate group