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Benchmark Review

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Divine Right
idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth are therefore answerable only to God
Balance of Power
political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
Enlightenment
is the knowledge of oneself through meditation and prayer. It also leads to the knowledge of God, one's relationship with God and all Creation. This will bring one inner peace. To know all of these things is as relevant today as it was yesterday and since Time began.
Scientific Revolution
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid 1500's, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Enlightened Despot
form of absolute monarchy or despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education.
Reign of Terror
The period (1793-1794) of the French Revolution during which thousands of people were executed.
Enclosure Movement
Enclosure or inclosure is the process which was used to end some traditional rights, such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on land which is owned by another person, or a group of people. During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes.
Urbanization
growth of cities and the migration of people into them.
Unions
an association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages
Imperialism
Europeans exert influence over the economic, political, and social lives of people they colonize (1800-19140).
Sphere of Influence
European countries have exclusive trading rights in territory.
Fashoda Incident
race for African colonies between France and England (war)
Boxer Rebellion
officially supported peasant uprising in 1900 in China that attempted to drive all foreigners from the country.
Sepoy Mutiny
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May, 1857, in the town of Meerut and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plan and central India with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region, and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858. The rebellion is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857 and the Sepoy Mutiny.