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Dual Enrollment History: Test 5
Terms in this set (181)
Political Machines, the Grand Army of the Republic, and Bourbons
What 3 things influenced politics the most during the Gilded Age?
To exchange favors and jobs for votes
What was the purpose of Political Machines?
The Tweed Ring
What was one of the more famous Political Machines?
Were notoriously corrupt and every major city had one
What were 2 characteristics of the Political Machines?
The Grand Army of the Republic
What was the name of the group of Union war veterans who were granted benefits (pensions) by political parties as a way to gain more votes?
The southern Democrats who regained control after Reconstruction
Who were the Bourbons?
Referred to as the "solid South" and passed state level laws known as Jim Crow Laws
What were two characteristics of the Bourbons?
Brought about legal segregation
What did the Jim Crow Laws do? (Passed by the Bourbons)
James Garfield and Chester Arthur; Winfield Hancock
Who were the Republican Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and the Democratic Presidential candidate in the election of 1880?
Who won in the election of 1880?
Protective tariff and civil service reform
What were the 2 biggest issues during the Election of 1880?
Protected American industry
What did the protective tariff do?
Did the Democrats want lower or higher tariffs?
Did the Republicans want lower or higher tariffs?
Any civilian government job
What is civil service reform?
There should be standards put in place for getting these jobs
What did the Republicans believe about civil service reform?
Who shot President Garfield in July of 1881, eventually killing him 6 months later?
Who replaced James Garfield as President after he was assassinated?
Passed the Pendleton Act, passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, and began to modernize the U.S. Navy
What 3 major things occurred under Chester Arthur's presidency?
James Blaine and Grover Cleaveland
Who were the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates in the Election of 1884?
Which of the two presidential candidates from the Election of 1884 was corrupt?
What was the name of the group of people who left the Republican Party because of James Blaine's corruption?
Rum, romanism, and rebellion
The Republicans said the Democrats were a party of three "R's". What were those three "R's?"
Who won in the Election of 1884?
The first president to be married in the White House, and was the first Democratic president since the Civil War
What were two things Grover Cleveland was the first to do?
The Presidential Succession Act, the Dawes Act, the Interstate Commerce Act, and the Electoral Count Act
What 4 Acts were passed during Grover Cleveland's presidency?
She the line of succession through the cabinet
What did the Presidential Succession Act do?
Evolved Indian policy with the idea to end tribal ownership of the land
What did the Dawes Act do?
Created interstate commerce commission and began the government regulation of the railroads
What did the Interstate Commerce Act do?
Said that the state government was the final authority in determining the legality of its electoral votes
What did the Electoral Count Act do?
Benjamin Harrison and Grover Cleveland
Who were the Republican and Democratic candidates in the Election of 1888?
Who won the Election of 1888?
The Sherman Silver Purchase Act, the McKinley Tariff Act, the Pension Act, and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
What 4 Acts were passed under Benjamin Harrison's presidency?
To stimulate the silver industry because the government would buy a certain amount of silver
What was the purpose of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act?
Raised the tariffs
What did the McKinley Tariff Act do?
It said that if you had served in the Union army for at least 90 days and you were now unable to perform manual labor, you would receive a government pension
What did the Pension Act do?
Outlawed business combinations that were in restraint of trade; outlawed monopolies
What did the Sherman Anti-Trust Act do?
Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland, and James Weaver
Who were the Republican, Democratic, and Populist Presidential candidates in the Election of 1892?
Who won the Election of 1892?
Was a Grass Roots party/movement which meant it started with the common people then grew, and started out West
What were two characteristics of the Populist Party?
Were for Bimetalism, a graduated income tax, wanted government ownership of railroads, telephone companies, and telegraph companies, in favor of the Australian Ballot, wanted a direct election of U.S. Senators, wanted an 8 hour work day, wanted to restrict immigration, supported Initiative, and supported Referendum
What were 9 ideas of the Grass Roots Movement? (Populist Party)
The idea that currency should be based on both gold and silver, which would allow more money in circulation
What was Bimetalism?
A secret vote
What was the Australian Ballot?
Allowed the people to propose laws
What was Initiative?
People would vote on the law
What was Referendum?
The Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act
What law was passed during the Panic of 1893 that helped lower the tariffs?
William McKinley, William Jennings Bryan, and William Jennings Bryan
Who were the Republican, Democratic, and Populist candidates in the election of 1896?
William McKinley; believed the currency should be based on gold
Which of the candidates in the Election of 1896 was a Gold Bug, and what is a Gold Bug?
William Jennings Bryan
Which of the candidates in the Election of 1896 was a Bimetalist?
Who won the election of 1896?
Laissez-faire, passed the Dingley Tariff Act, passed the Gold Standard Act, and Plessy vs. Ferguson
What 4 things occurred under William McKinley's presidency?
Meant the government would not interfere in the economy
What was Laissez-faire?
Caused the tariff to increase
What did the Dingley Tariff Act do?
Said that paper currency could be redeemed or exchanged for gold
What did the Gold Standard Act do?
Legalized segregation based on the idea of separate but equal
What was the outcome of the Supreme Court case Plessy vs. Ferguson?
What was President William McKinley considered to be concerning foreign policy?
Most were from northern or western Europe, mostly Protestant, literate, and were for the most part accepted by the American population
What were 4 characteristics of the Old Immigrants?
Were from south-eastern Europe, and they were not welcome in America
What were 2 characteristics of the New Immigrants?
Economic opportunities, to escape poor living conditions, to escape religious persecution, and some were recruited by American business
What were 4 reasons why immigrants came to the United States?
They didn't speak English, had little or no education, had few skills which landed them in the lowest paying jobs, and lived in the poorest areas of the city
What were 4 problems immigrants faced after arriving in America?
They couldn't speak English, many were Catholic, were blamed for driving down wages, and had dangerous political ideas
What were 4 reasons why immigrants were discriminated against?
What was the main dangerous political idea immigrants spread when they came to America?
Wanted laws passed that prevented Catholics from immigrating to the United States
What was the purpose of The American Protective Association?
Wanted to keep out anyone who could not read or write English
What was the purpose of Immigration Restriction Leagues?
Cities and factories
What two things grew most rapidly because of the amount of immigrants that settled in the United States?
Pollution, and Tenement Houses
What were the 2 biggest problems in the cities during the Second Industrial Revolution?
Cheaply built apartment buildings that were considered fire traps
What were Tenement Houses?
This urban reformer in Chicago founded the Hull House.
To teach immigrants how to read, write, and acquire important job skills
What was the purpose of the Hull House?
This urban reformer in New York founded the Henry Street settlement.
Germany and the United States
What countries were the 2 main leaders during the Second Industrial Revolution?
Skilled workers and unskilled workers
What were the 2 categories of workers?
Payed more, and most were white males
What were 2 characteristics of skilled workers?
Payed less, and most were from minority groups
What were 2 characteristics of unskilled workers?
Technological unemployment, low wages, long hours, child labor, and dangerous working conditions
What were 5 major problems face by skilled and unskilled workers?
12 hour days for 6 days a week
How many hours and for how many days a week did skilled and unskilled workers have to work?
There was no safety equipment
What was the main reason why working conditions were so dangerous for skilled and unskilled workers?
The National Labor Union, Knights of Labor, The American Federation of Labor, The American Railway Union, The Industrial Workers of the World, and the Industrial Ladies Garment Workers Union
What were 6 of the most notable Labor Unions during the Second Industrial Revolution?
Who was the leader of the National Labor Union?
The first attempt at a national organization, was for skilled workers only, and pushed for an 8 hour workday
What were 3 characteristics of the National Labor Union?
Who was the leader of the Knights of Labor?
What was the method of the Knight's of Labor?
Was for skilled and unskilled workers, wanted an 8 hour workday, and equal pay for dual work
What were 3 characteristics of the Knights of Labor?
There was a Knights of Labor rally at the square and a bomb was thrown into the crowd and exploded, killing 8 policemen
What happened at the Haymarket Affair? (Under: Knights of Labor)
Who was the leader of The American Federation of Labor?
Skilled workers only
Was The American Federation of Labor for skilled workers, unskilled workers, or both?
Higher wages, better working conditions, and shorter hours
What 3 major things did The American Federation of Labor want?
The Fair Labor Standards Act
What Act created the 8 hour workday?
Who was the leader of The American Railway Union?
Skilled and unskilled railway workers were allowed
What was the 1 main characteristic of The American Railway Union?
Who was the leader of The Industrial Workers of the World?
Were radical socialists, and a small group
What were 2 characteristics of The Industrial Workers of the World?
Who was the leader of the Industrial Ladies Garment Workers Union?
A fire broke out on the 8th floor of the building, resulting in many people on the top 2 floors jumping out of windows to their deaths
What happened at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911?
How many died at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company?
The state of New York passed fire safety codes, abolished Sunday work, and abolished child labor for children under 14
What 3 things happened in response to the Triangle Shirtwaist Company?
The Vanderbilts because of shipping and railroads, and the Carneignes because of steel
Who were 2 examples of Industrial Barrons?
A Trust, a Pool, Interlocking Directorate, and Stockwatering
What were 4 new business ideas and models the Industrial Barrons developed?
To eliminate competition so prices would decrease
What was the purpose of a Trust?
Where businesses would agree to divide business and share the profit
What was a Pool?
Where a board of directors have some members in common so that the companies would be under the same control
What was Interlocking Directorate?
Selling stocks in excess of value by exaggerating profits
What was Stockwatering?
Going on strike
What method would workers use to get to the management when they were angry about their job?
Yellow Dog Contract, Blacklisting, Lock-Out, Strike-breakers, and Scabs
What were 5 told the management would use against the workers when they went on strike?
An agreement to not join a Union
What was a Yellow Dog Contract?
The firing of a person involved in a Union, then circulating their name to other businesses
What was Blacklisting?
A reverse strike: you would close the business to put pressure on the workers and the Union
What was a Lock-Out?
People brought in to work while the Union members were on strike
Who were Strike-breakers?
Workers who were hired to spy on the Union members
Who were Scabs?
Who was the editor of a newspaper in Atlanta and also promoted the "New South"?
Said the South needed to stop relying on agriculture and introduce industry
What was the main idea of the "New South"?
Mining, lumber, railroads, cattle, and farming
What were the 5 major industries out West?
Gold, silver, and copper
What were the 3 major things most people would mine for?
Who owned most mines?
The Home State Mining Company
What mining company controlled all of the gold claims in the Dakotas? (About 6,000 square miles)
Where did the most massive demand for lumber come from?
To encourage western settlement, and under this system individuals could buy public land (up to 160 acres) that was "unfit for cultivation"
What was the purpose of the Timber and Stone Act, and what were the specifics about the land one could buy under this system?(Under: Lumber industries)
Most of the land ended up with the lumber companies
What happened to most of the land that was "unfit for cultivation"? (Under: Lumber industry-Timber and Stone Act)
What was the place called where the East and West railroad companies met, completing the first continental railroad?
Subsidies and land grants
What did the government give the railroad companies to help them pay for building the railroads?
Steel rails, the standardized gauge, the Resting House air brake, and time zones
What were 4 improvements made to railroads?
Because people began to adjust the time on their clocks to railroad time, which put everyone on the same time
Why was improving time zones important for the railroads?
The Beef Bonanza
What was the massive increase in the number of cattle during the Civil War called?
In the East
Where was the demand for beef growing the most?
Because of the large demand for beef in the East, cattle drives were started to get the beef from the West to Missouri
Why were cattle drives started?
Who was the man known to be the founder of the cattle trade in Texas and was the originator of the Abilene Cattle Trail?
Where a rancher would let their cattle roam on public land, and when it was time for the cattle drive the cowboys would round them up
What was Open Range Ranching?
How many months would it take cattle drivers to get to their destination?
Storms, stampedes, Indians, and rustlers
What were 4 cattle drive concerns?
Were in their early twenties, and many were Civil War veterans
What were 2 characteristics of most cowboys?
A series of natural disasters: drought and snow
What happened in the late 1880's that killed over 90% of the cattle?
What were extremely popular books from the 1880's that were all about cowboys and Indians called?
Who had a traveling show called the Wild Wild West Show?
Who wrote a novel called The Virginian, which was the first novel with a western theme?
The Great Train Robbery
What was the name of the first silent movie with a western theme called? (1903)
You could purchase up to 160 acres of public land for $30
What did the Homestead Act of 1862 say? (Under: Farming)
Who marketed barbed wire so farmers could fence their land?
Who developed the steel plow?
Who developed the mechanical reaper with the purpose of harvesting wheat faster?
In what decade of the 1800's was the steam tractor invented?
They were very large farms, grew only wheat, and were businesses like plantations
What were Bonanza Farms?
Weather and Grasshoppers
What were 2 problems both big and small farms had?
What was the organization farmers made that passed the Granger Laws?
Created or established state commissions to regulate the railroads
What did the Granger Laws do?
Ruled that the state governments could regulate businesses that affect the public
What did the Supreme Court rule in Munn vs. Illinois?
Ruled that the state government could not regulate traffic or business that crossed state lines, only the federal government could
What did the court rule in the Wabash cases?
Allowed the federal government to regulate railroad traffic
What did the Interstate Commerce Commission do?
The Greenback Party
What party wanted to put more paper money into circulation, but disappeared after the economy issue was solved?
North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah
What 7 states were added to the Union in the 1890's, completing the continental United States?
What did Utah have to outlaw before they could become a state?
Black southerners who were leaving the South for their promised land Kansas
Who were the Exodusters?
Who was the leader of the Exodusters?
For political and economic reasons
Why did the Exodusters leave in search of their promised land?
There were fewer women but over time it increased, they were a stabilizing force in the West, and they had more freedoms in the West than in the East
What were 3 characteristics of women in the West?
In what state were women first granted the right to vote?
Who was the first woman ever elected to a state office?
The end of the frontier
What did the Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 represent?
A quarter of a million Indians lived on the Great Plains, they were nomads, and their main source of food was buffalo
What were 3 characteristics of the Indians in the West?
Sioux (Lakoda), Crow, Cheyenne, Pawnee, Comanche, and Kiowa
What were the 6 major tribes of Indians in the West?
An area supervised by the United Sates government
What was the purpose of the reservations the Indians were sent to in the 1850's?
The whites wanted the Indian's land, and were forcing them into reservations so they could attain that land
Where did the conflict between the whites and Indians begin?
What tribe of Indians were part of the Sand Creek Massacre?
Chief Black Kettle
Who was the Indian leader of the Cheyenne in the Sand Creek Massacre?
The Indians went to a meeting under a flag of truce to negotiate, but a local militia, under the leadership of Colonel John Chivington, attacked the encampment and killed about 200 of them
What happened at the Sand Creek Massacre?
Gold was discovered in the Black Hills which was a sacred place to the Sioux, so whites began to flood to the area in search of gold. The government was supposed to keep this from happening, but they did nothing to stop it
What sparked the Sioux Wars?
Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
Who were the 2 Sioux leaders who lead the Indians to fight for their land?
Who was the U.S. leader in the Battle of Little Big Horn?
The Indians greatly outnumbered the cavalry and defeated them
What happened at the Battle of Little Big Horn?
Who was the leader of the Nez Perce Indians?
Chief Joseph was leading his people to safety in Canada because they were suffering. The American Army decided to chase the Indians to the Canadian border so they wouldn't escape, and the Indians surrendered about 30 miles from the Canadian border
Why did the American Army chase the Nez Perce Indians?
Lead by Geronimo
Who was the leader of the Apache Indians?
They were known to be fierce warriors who didn't like to be forced into a reservation
What were the Apache Indians know for being?
They jumped the reservation in an attempt to escape, but were eventually captured and Geronimo was sent to Florida
Because the Apache Indians didn't like being forced into a reservation, what did some young warriors do?
Helen Hunt Jackson
Who wrote a book called "A Century of Dishonor" about all of the broken treaties the Americans had made with the Indians?
To end the tribal ownership of land and instead encourage private ownership of land because they wanted to make the Indians like everyone else
What was the goal of the Dawes Act?
Who was the medicine man who claimed to be connected to the ghost dance?
To bring back the old ways
What was the purpose of the ghost dance?
The buffalo would return, the spirits of dead relatives would return, and the white man would leave
What 3 things would happen if the ghost dance was performed?
It was outlawed by the government
What happened to the ghost dance?
The Sioux Indians had gathered there and about 300 of them were killed by white settlers
What happened at the Massacre at Wounded Knee Creek? (December 1890)
It marked the end of Indian resistance to white settlement
What was the significance of the Massacre at Wounded Knee Creek?
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