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active voice

when the subject of the sentence performs the action expressed in the verb

ad hominem argument

from the latin phrase "to the man"
refers to an argument that attacks the opposing speaker or another person rather than addressing the issues at hand


a fictional work in which the characters represent ideas or concepts


the repetition of consonant sounds, usually at the beginning of words


a reference to another thing, idea, or person


uncertain or indefinite; subject to more than one interpretation


an ambiguity which results from unclear use of grammar, giving the sentence more than one meaning because of its structure.
ex: "Good boys and girl" ---> are the girls good too?
"One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas" ---> how
did the elephant get in your pajamas?!


use of historically inaccurate details in a text


repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the next clause


asks a reader to think about the correspondence or resemblance between two things that are essentially different


the regular repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses


a brief story or tale told by a character in a piece of literature


the noun or pronoun that every subsequent pronoun refers back to


the substitution of one part of speech for another ex: "The poet says we 'milestone our lives.' "


the repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical order ex: "You can take the boy out of the country but you can't take the country out of the boy."

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