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Terms in this set (92)
What is the prevalence of children born with significant permanent hearing loss?
4 out of 1,000
When does the prevalence increase?
What are the types of hearing loss?
What is sensorineural hearing loss?
inner/auditory nerve hearing loss
- genetic, birth defect, meningitis
What is conductive hearing loss?
outer ear hearing loss
- otitis media, perferorated TM
What is mixed hearing loss?
both SNHL and CHL
What is degree?
what is inaudible to the person
What is the range of frequencies tested?
What is threshold?
softest sound a person can hear 50% of the time
What is an auditory processing disorder (APD)?
malfunctioning of the auditory pathway tot he brain
- trying to improve auditory skills by teaching strategies to compensate
What is auditory neuropathy/dys synchrony?
hearing loss in outer hair cells are normal but there is a short in the auditory never to the brain
- cochlear implant would be best
When does the child need to be diagnosed with a hearing loss?
When does an intervention need to happen for a child with hearing loss?
- speaking listening plan
When does there need to be treatment?
18 months (cochlear implants)
What is the cause of SLI?
there isn't one specific cause
specific language impairment
What is SLI?
has a language deficit without hearing loss, low IQ, or neurological damage
What is the criteria of SLI?
- normal hearing
- can be a neurological disorder
- no oral structure or oral motor normalities
- normal social abilities
- non verbal of 85 or higher
- language scores below -1.25
late language emergence
What is LLE?
- will have less than 50 words at 24 months
- few word combos at 30 months
- limited symbolic play
- limited use of gestures
- inability to follow verbal instructions
How does the DSM 5 define a language disorder?
persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of language across modalities due to deficits in comprehension or production
What is a social communication disorder?
sed to classify individuals who demonstrate significant pragmatic deficits but not repetitive or restrictive behaviors associated with ASD
What are some associated problems with SLI?
- 40% of children with an SLI have a speech problem as well as (cognitive processing deficits, ADD, ADHD)
- 59% have problems in reading and writing
What are the causes of SLI?
- genetics (60% have another family member affected / 38% of parents are affected)
- language learning environment (once appropriately exposed they will have better learning progress)
What are major characteristics of SLI?
- syntax (slow vocab. growth)
- pragmatics (trouble with peer interactions, conversational repairs)
What is the assessment of SLI?
- language sample analysis
- norm-referenced assessments
- criterion-referenced assessments (parent child interaction assessment, curriculum based language assessment (both naturalistic)
What is curriculum based language assessment?
- in child's classroom
- looking at how teach teaches
- what they're learning
What are the interventions of SLI?
- social intervention with peers
- peer confederate training
- sociodramatic script training
- enhance milieu teaching (EMT)
- conversational recast training (CRT)
- sentence combining (SC)
What is social intervention with peers?
- identifying a social skills hierarchy, teaching specific social skill strategies, facilitating strategies into peer interaction
What is peer confederate training?
- students with typical language development are trained to use social strategies to encourage communication from students with disorders
What is sociodramatic script training?
- an adult uses role-play and cuing to familiarize the student with daily discourse routines such as greeting, lunchtime, asking a friend to play, etc.
What is EMT?
- all EBP naturalistic
- parents are trained to be the primary language teacher
- hybrid approach between adult and child directed
- uses simple questions and requests for child imitation, along with adult language modeling techniques
- this is effective for children with low expressive and receptive language levels
- appropriate beginning language learners (teach language through everyday routines, teaching is initiated in response to the child's focus of attention, vocab. development and early semantic combos)
What is CRT?
- approach for ages 2-early elementary age
- most effective with children above the two-word level
- SENTENCE RECASTS; adult response to a child's utterance that modifies the child's utterance while maintaining meaning
- similar to expansion but recast's vary sentence modality for target form awareness, and facilitates higher rate of production than expansion
- small group or individual session
- approach requires lots of training
What is SC?
- students are supported to combine smaller related sentences into a compound sentence using conjunctions
- embedding adjectives and adverbs from one sentence to the next
- creating complex sentences
- used in school age
Can we qualify a child for SLI based on their language deficit?
augmentative and alternative communication
What is AAC?
- can be temporary or permanent
- CCN's: Complex Communication Needs
- is a receptive/expressive impairment
- DOES NOT replace or hinder speech
- is not an intervention approach to replace speech
What are the AAC symbols?
aided and unaided
What is aided?
child uses a support to convey message
What is unaided?
child does not need any prosthetic/external support to convey message
What are the AAC aids?
- low tech: pictures
- mid tech: battery operated devices
- high tech: computers
What are the AAC strategies?
- color coding
What is encoding?
can help quickly explain a lengthy message
What is color coding?
used to highlight part of speech or a type of communicative act
What is prediction?
What are AAC techniques?
how the message is conveyed
What are some examples of AAC techniques?
- direct selection
What is scanning?
used by individuals with physical limitations
- involves a communication partner or electronic aid that displays symbols in a predetermined pattern
What is direct selection?
using finger pointing to point out symbols or looking directly at an intended object; often most efficient strategy
What is an AAC selection set?
fixed displays, dynamic displays, and visual scene display
- codes available to the child
What are fixed displays?
symbols do not change after the person selects the location
What are dynamic displays?
change after a location is selected—often a portable tablet with a specific software
What is a visual scene display?
picture, photograph, or virtual environment that depicts and represents a situation, place, or experience
What is the assessment for AAC?
- standard language assessment
- ID of communication needs and participation patterns (used to determine intrinsic and extrinsic factors of an individuals CCN)
- symbol assessment
- feature matching
- AAC system trials
What is the symbol assessment?
- "select the types of symbols that will meet the individual's current communication needs and match his or her current abilities, as well as to identify symbol options that might be used in the future"
- considers aided and unaided symbols
What is feature matching?
- match of AAC system features with the capabilities and communication needs of a child
What are AAC system trials?
can ask the electronic distributor to borrow to see if helps child or have a rep come and trial it with the child / trying out different systems to see what works
What is cultural self awareness?
practitioner examines values, beliefs, and patterns of behavior that are part of his or her own cultural identity
- one's own beliefs are not inherently correct but only one perspective
What is the individualist?
immediate, nuclear family
What is the collectivist?
interdepence, extended family
What is ethnocentrism?
when a member of one culture judges another culture based on their beliefs and values
What is the prevalence of otitis media causing a hearing loss?
1/3 children in kindergarten and 1st grade affected on any given day
What are the terms of HL?
- temporary or permanent
- fluctuating or progressive
- unilateral or bilateral
What is neuroplasticity?
rapid infant brain growth (brain's ability to grow and change)
What is the Ling test?
6 sounds, see if they have auditory access to these sounds
What are the 6 sounds tested in the Ling test?
m, a, ee, oo, s, sh
What is the McArthur test of HL?
vocab based, parent circles words child knows
What is the Celf-P HL test?
What are the emotions of the grief process?
american association on intellectual and developmental disabilities
What are some significant limitations of children with ID?
- intellectual functioning
- adaptive behavior (are they functioning like typically developing peers)
- must originate before age 18
What is the classification system for the ecological approach?
I. Intellectual Ability
II. Adaptive Behavior
III. Participation, Interactions, Social Roles
IV. Mental/Physical Health
- support form others in environment is important
What is the prevalence of ID?
- 1.3% of population
- more males than females
- 15% of SLP caseload in schools
What are the causes and risks of ID?
- genetics (50% / syndromes around 750 total)
- risk factors (pre, peri, and post natal)
What is top-down processing?
building on prior knowledge
What is bottom up pressing?
first time learning new information
What are the skills used for precessing and storing information?
- functional therapy; do it in a setting in which they can make generalizations
- lots of repetition, visuals, and meta skills
What is the functional assessment of ID?
- evaluate if AAC will be needed
- why kids do things (gain attention, avoid, sensory stimulation)
What are ID subtypes?
- williams syndrom IQ
- Fragile X
What is the 2nd leading cause of ID?
What is down-syndrome?
- vocab equal or above nonverbal ability
- morphosyntax impaired
- pragmatics good at word level only not sentences
What is williams syndrome?
- IQ is lower than vocab and syntax skills
- overly friendly, difficulty with turn taking and topics
- do not do well with norm referenced tests; use criterion
- articulation, prosody, and pragmatics are good
What is Fragile X?
- similar to autism
- primarily affects males
- anxiety, social avoidance, hyperactivity
- phonological impairment and syntax
- language ability consistent with cognitive ability
What is the intervention for ID?
- milieu teaching
- peer-training methods
- functions communication training
- it's fun program
What is functional communication training?
- behavioral intervention used to replace an individual's maladaptive or problem behaviors
What is the it's fun program?
- summer camp to do songs, plays, etc (work with their communication skills and pragmatics)
What is milieu teaching?
- play based start with them when young
What are peer-training models?
use peer to help train better
What are the characteristics of a child with ASD?
- communication and social
- motor & perceptual
- learning differences
What are the causes of autism?
- genetic (non know causes)
- environmental factors (pre, peri, post natal)
- folic acid
- no proof that vaccines cause autism
What are the interventions for ASD?
- speech language therapy
- sensory integration Therapy
- OT- fine motor
- PT- gross motor
What are the intervention techniques for ASD?
- Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
- visual supports
- DIR floortime
- relationship development Intervention (RDI)
- Training and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH)
- Social Communication/Emotional Regulation/Transactional Support (SCERTS)
- functional communication training
- video modeling
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