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the long term prevailing weather conditions at a particular place based on records taken.


the distance from the equator measured in degrees north or south of the equator

El nino

warm phase for 6-18 months in eastern pacific.

La nina

the cool phase in the eastern pacific.


the place of the atmosphere at a particular place at a particular moment.


slanting or inclined in direction. in northern and southern latitudes the sun hits the earth at oblique angles.

prevailing winds

wind that blows predominately in one direction throughout the year.


precise detailed study of the surface features of a region


caused by Earths tilt.

ice cores

found in greenland. can tell when the ice froze.

greenhouse gases

the gases that absorb and radiate heat. examples:water vapor, carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide.

greenhouse effect

the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of the Earth due to the earths atmospheric gases getting trapped in the earths atmosphere.

global warming

the increasing temperature at the Earth's surface.


intergovernmental panel on climate

Kyoto Protocol

requires developed countries to decrease emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by by an average of 5 percent below their 1990 levels by 2012.


the basic unit of matter.

1st law of thermodynamics

no cold heat just moves.

3rd of thermodynamics

if all energy is removed absolute zero exists.

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