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nrs ch 9 SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY: THE SPECIES APPROACH
Terms in this set (86)
John James Audubon, a 19th Century bird expert, once saw a flock of birds that took three days to fly past him, and darkened the skies as it past. The bird he saw was the
Approximately 100 years after Audubon's sighting of the massive flock of birds, the species
was biologically extinct
The current mass extinction differs from previous mass extinctions in that
The current extinction is caused by humans.
A 2005 report indicates humans have disturbed what percentage of the earth's land surface?
The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is called
Expressed as a percentage, the estimated background extinction rate before humans, is
1.0 x 10-4 %
A 2005 report suggests that the current extinction rate is how much larger than the estimated background extinction rate?
100 to 1,000 times
When so few members of a species remain that it can no longer play its role in the biological communities where it is found, the species has undergone
An endangered species
may soon become extinct over all or most of its range
Four of the following are characteristics that make some species especially vulnerable to ecological and biological extinction. One of the following is not such a characteristic. Choose the one that is not a characteristic.
Four of the following are types of instrumental values that are derived from biodiversity, one is not. Choose the one that is not.
Ecotourism generates between $1 million and $2 million per minute in tourist expenditures worldwide. This value is a type of which of the following?
People who believe that wild species have an intrinsic right to exist generally believe that species have
Biologist E. O. Wilson suggests that the billions of years of evolution leading to the human species has left us with an inherent genetic kinship with the natural world, something he calls
Some biologists remind us the true foundation of the earth's ecosystems and ecological processes is made up of
If you enjoy bananas, cashews, dates, figs, avocados, or mangos you can thank
Pollen-eating and fruit-eating bats, especially on tropical islands, are
According to researchers, the greatest threat to wild species is
In terms of habitat destruction, the greatest eliminator of species is
deforestation in tropical areas
When a large, contiguous area of habitat is reduced in area and divided into smaller, more scattered patches, the process is called
What percentage of the world's 10,000 bird species is declining in number?
Because birds live in every climate and biome, and because they are easy to track and count, they serve as excellent
Which of the following is not an ecological service provided by birds?
The greatest new threat to bird populations is
The biggest problem with invasive species is that in the new location they
have no population controls such as predators
Four of the following are true about the plant "kudzu," one is not. Choose the one that is not.
Can be controlled by normal weed control measures.
Which of the following was intentionally introduced into the United States?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a successful invader species?
Some toxic chemicals, such as those in DDT, can be stored in the fat tissue of animals. As these animals become food for larger and larger animals, the amount of the toxin gets larger and larger. This process is called
Which of the following organisms pollinates 95% of all commercially grown crops, including one-third of fruit and vegetable crops in the United States?
With the Arctic warming twice as fast as the rest of the world, which of the following organisms is rapidly moving toward threatened status?
For every exotic live animal captured and sold in the pet market, approximately how many others are killed or die in transit?
A species that is illegally hunted becomes few in number. Their scarcity makes them more valuable and the hunting increases. This situation is called a(n
positive feedback loop
Four of the following are causes of an increase in hunting bushmeat, one is not. Choose the one that is not
spread of AIDS
Illegal hunting for profit is called
CITES is a(n)
treaty controlling the international trade in endangered species
The Convention on Biological Diversity, ratified by 190 countries, seeks to reverse the global decline of biodiversity and share the benefits from the use of genetic resources, but has been slowed by
all of these
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973
all of these
When the Endangered Species Act was established in 1973, the list included 92 U.S. species. In 2007, that number had risen to
Which of the following would be allowed under a habitat conservation plan?
A landowner, logger, or developer could destroy some critical habitat.
Efforts have been underway since 1995 to change the Endangered Species Act. Which of the following is included in the changes that are sought?
all of these
The group of animals receiving the most protection by the use of wildlife refuges are
Four of the following are ways that the pressure can be taken off of some endangered species, one is not. Choose the one that is not.
Harvesting endangered species to preserve their skins and bones.
Captive breeding programs in zoos
require the captive population to number between 100 and 500
Egg pulling refers to
collecting eggs from the wild and hatching them
Some critics of the ESA suggest it has been a failure. Four of the following are reasons they give for that conclusion, one is not. Choose the one that is not.
Only about 500 species have been saved.
According to which of the following should we take measures to prevent harm to the environment and human health even if the science has not been fully established?
The introduction of nonnative species often results in unforeseen consequences. This experience indicates that when introducing nonnative species we would be well advised to apply the
The passenger pigeon was once the most numerous bird species on earth.
All mass extinctions thus far have been caused by natural phenomena that drastically changed environmental conditions
Even the estimated high rates of extinction are considered by most extinction experts as being too conservative (too low).
Elephant populations are declining throughout Africa.
In protecting species from premature extinction, and in protecting their vital habitats, we are helping sustain our own health and well-being
DNA is now being used to help control the killing of elephants for their ivory.
Elephant herds in South Africa may soon be thinned by killing some members in order to reduce herd size.
The greatest eliminator of species is over-hunting and over-fishing.
Species that need to roam over large areas are especially invulnerable to local and regional extinction
About three-quarters of all threatened bird species live in temperate grasslands.
Extinction of birds that play key and specialized roles in pollination and seed dispersal, especially in tropical areas, may lead to a cascade of extinctions of other animal species
Introduced species provide more than 98% of the U.S. food supply.
It is easier to remove an invasive species than it is to control their introduction.
Evidence shows that the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world
Political considerations are allowed when identifying species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973
The amount of money spent on the Endangered Species Act for a year is about the same as the Defense Department spends in approximately one hour.
Only about 30% of the world's rare and threatened plant species are being grown in the world's botanical gardens and arboreta.
Economic considerations can not be taken into account in any decision concerning endangered or threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973
Recovery of the passenger pigeon as a species was doomed because the females __________ per nest per year.
laid only one egg
A 2005 report estimates the current annual rate of species extinction is at least __________ to __________ times the background rate that existed before modern humans appeared.
With global climate change and other human activities, the current extinction rate could reach __________ times the background rate of extinction.
According to E. O. Wilson and Stuart Pimm, at an extinction rate of 1% per year __________ of all animal and plant species could be gone by 2050 and __________ by the end of the century.
A(n) __________ species has so few individual survivors that the species could soon become extinct over all or most of its natural range
The rate of species loss and the extent of biodiversity loss are likely to __________ during the next 50-100 years as a result of the growth of the world's __________ __________ and resource use per person
increase; human population
The species-area relationship suggests that, on average, a 90% loss of habitat causes the extinction of __________% of the species living in that habitat.
It will take __________ years for natural speciation to rebuild the biodiversity we are likely to destroy in this century.
We should act to prevent premature extinction of species, in part because they have __________ __________, their usefulness to us in the form of ecological and economic services.
Some scientists and philosophers believe that each wild species has __________ based on its inherent right to exist and play its ecological roles.
__________ species are found nowhere else on earth.
Any habitat surrounded by a different one is considered a __________ __________ for most species living there
Of the world's 10,000 bird species, approximately __________ (number) of them are threatened.
Nonnative species threaten almost __________ of the approximately 1,300 endangered and threatened species in the U.S.
The Southeast Asian __________ __________, introduced into Florida by pet owners, can reach 6 meters in length and 90 kilograms, and can swallow an adult deer.
DDT can __________ by moving up the food chain and accumulating in the fat tissues of animals at high level
Some scientists are concerned that bee colony collapse disorder could lead to __________ __________ disorder in parts of the world.
The __________ __________ ___________ __________ has the responsibility for identifying and listing endangered and threatened oceans species under the ESA of 1973.
National Marine Fisheries Service
The __________ __________ suggests we should take measures to prevent or reduce harm to the environment and human health even if some of the cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully established scientifically.
The U.S. __________ __________ __________ __________ has the responsibility for identifying and listing endangered and threatened species other than ocean species.
Fish and Wildlife Service
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