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Terms in this set (54)
How many types of revelation are there?
Two- Natural and Supernatural
What is another name for natural revelation?
What are the three avenues to obtain natural revelation?
Nature and Creation
Original Knowledge and History
What is another name for supernatural revelation?
What are the three avenues in obtaining supernatural revelation?
The Written Word (Scripture)
The Living Word (Jesus)
The Holy Spirit (Illuminator of Truth)
What does Romans 1:18-32 tell us?
Provides evidence that God has readily made himself known throughout nature, and should make man seek Him out. By not seeking after God they are left without excuse
Psalms 19 displays the natural progression of realising what?
The general existence of God (1-6)
The specific way of knowing Him (His Law) (7-11)
The natural response one should have after receiving this knowledge (12-14)
What are the four classical arguments for the existence of God?
What is cosmology?
The study of the natural world (cosmos) as evidences of God's existence
What are the elements of cosmology?
What is teleology?
The study of the design and purpose (telos) of all created things
What are the elements of teleology?
What is Ontology?
The study of the existence (ontos) as proof of God as the Supreme being
What are the elements of ontology?
Inner sense of God's existence
Universal knowledge among mankind
Ability to conceive the "highest most conceivable being"
What is anthropological/moral?
The study of human (anthropo) nature, especially the presence of the conscience as the judge of good and evil, as a logical argument for the existence of God
What are the elements of anthropological/moral?
Internal sense of right and wrong
What points to the fact that there is some other higher being that provides knowledge?
The fact that we have emotions and can distinguish from good and evil
This is a reflection of a knowledge gained after what?
The fall of Man at the Garden of
All four arguments characterize a God who?
Has made Himself known
Has all power and authority
Has infinite intelligence
Has given us a sense of right and wrong
All of this is for what purpose?
in order to have a creation that can make a free-willed choice to follow after him
What are the main points of Psalm 19:7-11?
They demonstrate how the general knowledge of God leads to one to seek further truth
These special truths are defined by the Psalmist as what?
As God's Law or Word
What does Psalms 19:12-14 tell us?
Only the word of Truth can save man because we are without excuse. The Psalmist depicts man crying out to God in repentance as the Word reveals the sin within his life as well as its truth resonating with his soul
The beginning of critical thinking starts with what?
In order to understand argumentation what does one need to learn?
The nature of an argument
The law of non-contradiction
Logical fallacies that frustrate and mislead
Without knowing how to think critically one is easily swayed by what?
What is an argument from a philosophical perspective?
When one draws a conclusion from various premises
What are some key words that indicate a premise is being presented?
For this reason
Based on the fact that
What are some words that may be used when drawing a conclusion?
It follows that
What is an assertion?
A statement without a premise
What is the foundational law for all logical thinking?
The Law of Non-Contradiction
What is the law of Non-Contradiction?
A statement (or proposition) cannot be true and not true at the same time and in the same respect
What would we not be able to tell if we did not have the law of Non-Contradiction?
If something were true or false
What is a fallacy?
A faulty argument
What are the three groupings of logical fallacies?
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Fallacies of Relevance
Fallacies of Presumption
What are fallacies of ambiguity?
fallacies that occur due to differences in culture, age groups, races, prejudices, and especially worldviews. for this reason clear definitions in all communication is important or frustration and misunderstanding can occur
What is equivocation?
The fallacy of equivocation occurs when we use different definitions for the same word, or a word is taken in a different way than intended. Someone may use this fallacy when they either misunderstood the quality of man or deliberately distorted its meaning.
Much of our humor is based on what?
Equivocation (ex. puns or "play on words")
What are fallacies of relevance?
Fallacies that are irrelevant additions to the argument that distort the truth in an attempt to persuade the listener. Reason and Logic should be used here as emotion becomes an enemy.
What is appeal to pity?
A fallacy that occurs when one tries to persuade by invoking the listener to feel sorry for the individual or group for whom one is arguing. Pity may seem like the appropriate reaction but it is not a valid means of persuasion.
What is Ad hominem (argument to the person)?
A fallacy that is committed when, instead of dealing with what a person is arguing, someone attacks his or her character. No matter even if what you say is true it has no bearing on the argument. A sign that you have bested your opponent
What is appeal to ignorance?
A fallacy that occurs when you argue that something is true because it hasn't been proven to be false or to argue that something is false because is hasn't been proven to be true
What is a red herring?
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant side issue which ultimately distracts and confuses the case being presented.
What are fallacies of presumption?
Fallacies where someone holds to an unjustified conclusion. Usually caused by overlooking, denying, evading, or distorting the facts.
What is hasty generalization?
A fallacy that occurs when a person gathers too little information to support the conclusion being argued. Such as prejudices built on small sampling and then generalized and applied to something. From a few to majority!
What is sweeping generalization?
A fallacy that occurs when one takes a general rule and applies it absolutely to all instances not recognizing that there are exceptions. From a majority to a few.
What is begging the question (circular reasoning)?
A fallacy that occurs when one simply assumes what he or she is trying to prove.
What is a faulty dilemma?
A fallacy that occurs when a person states that there are only a certain number of options, and you must choose between them, when in fact there are more options avaliable
What is a complex question (loaded question)?
A fallacy that occurs when a person asks a question and is already implying something so the defendant can't answer with a simple yes or no
What is a false analogy?
An analogy is said to be fallacious or false if it compares two objects that are actually relevantly dissimilar or if the points of comparison are used to draw a conclusion that simply does not follow
What is a false cause?
A fallacy that is committed when a person believes that just because one thing followed another there must be a casual connection
What is a straw man?
A fallacy that occurs when a person misrepresents another's view so as easily to discredit it. Bringing up a topic just to smack it down
What is appeal to majority?
A fallacy that occurs when someone appeals to a group of people to prove that something is either right or wrong. Believes what is true is what majority votes for. Things can only be decided by legitimate reasons and evidence
What is appeal to tradition?
A fallacy that occurs when one appeals either to what is old, or to what is new in the attempt to establish truth.
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