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Chemical messengers that are secreted into the extracellular fluid, circulate through the blood or hemolymph, and affect target cells somewhere else in the body
Cannot penetrate the phospholipid bilayer, but rather bind to receptor proteins on the surface of the target cells. Triggers signal transduction.
A second messenger derived from ATP and triggers specific cellular changes in metabolic regulation
A second messenger derived from membrane phospholipids and triggers the release of CA2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum
A water-soluble hormone. Triggers uptake of glucose from the blood by the liver and body cells
Penetrates the target cell's plasma membrane and diffuse through the cytoplasm. The receptors for these types of hormones are either in the nucleus or they diffuse into the nucleus of the target cell, thereby directly triggering a response. Usually result in gene expression
A hormone that triggers glycogen breakdown in the liver, increased blood flow to muscles and decreased blood flow to the GI tract
Stimulus, Hormone secretion into bloodstream, interaction with receptor, signal transduction, physiological response
Simple Hormone Pathway
When blood glucose levels rise past a certain set point, insulin from these cells triggers uptake of glucose from the blood by the liver and body cells
When blood glucose levels drop past a certain set point glucagon from these cells triggers the release of glucose into blood
Caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues
Type 1 Diabetes
Insulin Dependent, an autoimmune disease which the immune system destroys beta cells. Detected at a young age and requires insulin treatments
Type 2 Diabetes
Non-Insulin Dependent, is caused by a failure of target cells to respond normally to insulin. Often sets in at an older age and excess body weight and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors
Receives information from nerves throughout the body and other parts of the brain, thus monitoring the external environment and internal conditions of the body
Releasing hormones are produced by the hypothalamus and secreted into the blood. The blood flows to the anterior pituitary where the releasing hormones stimulate the release of tropic hormones
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