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Vocabulary for Chapter 45 of Campbell Reece Biology 8th Edition for AP Biology.


Chemical messengers that are secreted into the extracellular fluid, circulate through the blood or hemolymph, and affect target cells somewhere else in the body

Endocrine System

Hormones actions

Types of Hormones

Steroids, amino acid derivatives, or polypeptides

Target Cells

Cells hormones act upon

Water-Soluble Hormones

Cannot penetrate the phospholipid bilayer, but rather bind to receptor proteins on the surface of the target cells. Triggers signal transduction.

Second Messengers

Go on to activate effectors which carry out some sort of action

Cyclic AMP

A second messenger derived from ATP and triggers specific cellular changes in metabolic regulation

Inositol Triphosphate

A second messenger derived from membrane phospholipids and triggers the release of CA2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum


A water-soluble hormone. Triggers uptake of glucose from the blood by the liver and body cells


A lipid-soluble hormone

Lipid-soluble Hormones

Penetrates the target cell's plasma membrane and diffuse through the cytoplasm. The receptors for these types of hormones are either in the nucleus or they diffuse into the nucleus of the target cell, thereby directly triggering a response. Usually result in gene expression


A hormone that triggers glycogen breakdown in the liver, increased blood flow to muscles and decreased blood flow to the GI tract

Stimulus, Hormone secretion into bloodstream, interaction with receptor, signal transduction, physiological response

Simple Hormone Pathway

Islets of Langerhans

Clusters of endocrine cells in the pancreas that contain alpha and beta cells

Beta Cells

When blood glucose levels rise past a certain set point, insulin from these cells triggers uptake of glucose from the blood by the liver and body cells

Alpha Cells

When blood glucose levels drop past a certain set point glucagon from these cells triggers the release of glucose into blood


Triggers release of glucose into blood, increasing blood glucose concentrations

Diabetes Mellitus

Caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues

Type 1 Diabetes

Insulin Dependent, an autoimmune disease which the immune system destroys beta cells. Detected at a young age and requires insulin treatments

Type 2 Diabetes

Non-Insulin Dependent, is caused by a failure of target cells to respond normally to insulin. Often sets in at an older age and excess body weight and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors

Parathyroid Hormone

Stimulates Ca2+ re-absorption in the kidneys and Ca2+ release from the bones


Allows for the build up of Ca2+ in bones and allowing for release of Ca2+ in the kidneys

Neurosecretory Cells

Specialized neurons found in the brain which secrete hormones into the blood.

Neuroendocrine Signaling

Secretion of hormones from neurosecretory cells


Secretions from Neurosecretory cells


Receives information from nerves throughout the body and other parts of the brain, thus monitoring the external environment and internal conditions of the body

Pituitary Gland

The master gland, located at the base of the hypothalamus

Posterior Pituitary

ADH and Oxytocin are produced in the hypothalamus and stored here until needed


Helps the kidney reabsorb water


Stimulates uterine contraction and lactation

Anterior Pituitary

Releasing hormones are produced by the hypothalamus and secreted into the blood. The blood flows to the anterior pituitary where the releasing hormones stimulate the release of tropic hormones

Tropic Hormones

Regulate endocrine production by other glands

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