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AP Biology Vocab Chapter 45 Campbell Reece Biology 8th Edition

Vocabulary for Chapter 45 of Campbell Reece Biology 8th Edition for AP Biology.
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Hormones
Chemical messengers that are secreted into the extracellular fluid, circulate through the blood or hemolymph, and affect target cells somewhere else in the body
Endocrine System
Hormones actions
Types of Hormones
Steroids, amino acid derivatives, or polypeptides
Target Cells
Cells hormones act upon
Water-Soluble Hormones
Cannot penetrate the phospholipid bilayer, but rather bind to receptor proteins on the surface of the target cells. Triggers signal transduction.
Second Messengers
Go on to activate effectors which carry out some sort of action
Cyclic AMP
A second messenger derived from ATP and triggers specific cellular changes in metabolic regulation
Inositol Triphosphate
A second messenger derived from membrane phospholipids and triggers the release of CA2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum
Insulin
A water-soluble hormone. Triggers uptake of glucose from the blood by the liver and body cells
Cortisol
A lipid-soluble hormone
Lipid-soluble Hormones
Penetrates the target cell's plasma membrane and diffuse through the cytoplasm. The receptors for these types of hormones are either in the nucleus or they diffuse into the nucleus of the target cell, thereby directly triggering a response. Usually result in gene expression
Epinephrine
A hormone that triggers glycogen breakdown in the liver, increased blood flow to muscles and decreased blood flow to the GI tract
Stimulus, Hormone secretion into bloodstream, interaction with receptor, signal transduction, physiological response
Simple Hormone Pathway
Islets of Langerhans
Clusters of endocrine cells in the pancreas that contain alpha and beta cells
Beta Cells
When blood glucose levels rise past a certain set point, insulin from these cells triggers uptake of glucose from the blood by the liver and body cells
Alpha Cells
When blood glucose levels drop past a certain set point glucagon from these cells triggers the release of glucose into blood
Glucagon
Triggers release of glucose into blood, increasing blood glucose concentrations
Diabetes Mellitus
Caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues
Type 1 Diabetes
Insulin Dependent, an autoimmune disease which the immune system destroys beta cells. Detected at a young age and requires insulin treatments
Type 2 Diabetes
Non-Insulin Dependent, is caused by a failure of target cells to respond normally to insulin. Often sets in at an older age and excess body weight and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors
Parathyroid Hormone
Stimulates Ca2+ re-absorption in the kidneys and Ca2+ release from the bones
Calcitonin
Allows for the build up of Ca2+ in bones and allowing for release of Ca2+ in the kidneys
Neurosecretory Cells
Specialized neurons found in the brain which secrete hormones into the blood.
Neuroendocrine Signaling
Secretion of hormones from neurosecretory cells
Neurohormones
Secretions from Neurosecretory cells
Hypothalamus
Receives information from nerves throughout the body and other parts of the brain, thus monitoring the external environment and internal conditions of the body
Pituitary Gland
The master gland, located at the base of the hypothalamus
Posterior Pituitary
ADH and Oxytocin are produced in the hypothalamus and stored here until needed
ADH
Helps the kidney reabsorb water
Oxytocin
Stimulates uterine contraction and lactation
Anterior Pituitary
Releasing hormones are produced by the hypothalamus and secreted into the blood. The blood flows to the anterior pituitary where the releasing hormones stimulate the release of tropic hormones
Tropic Hormones
Regulate endocrine production by other glands