26 terms

Functional Groups

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Functional Group
In organic molecules, the groups of atoms that participate in reactions
Hydroxyl Group
OH
Carbonyl Group
C=O
Carboxyl Group
COOH
Amine Group
NH2
Phosphate Group
PO4
Sulfhydryl Group
SH
Alcohols
Molecules that contain a hydroxyl group
Ethanol
C2H4OH
Methanol
CH3OH
Carbonyl Group Naming
-aldehyde or -keton
Acetone
C3H6O
Formaldehyde
CH2O
Carboxyl Group Naming
carboxylic acid/Organic Acids
Formic Acid
HCOOH
Lactic Acid
C3H6O3
Acetic Acid
CH3COOH
Citric Acid
C6H8O2
Amino Group
Molecules Act as a base in Solution
Phosphate Group
OPO3
Phosphate Group Naming
Organic Phosphates
Organic Phosphate Impact
Makes molecules high in energy
Isomers
same molecular formula: different structure
Structural Isomers
same molecular formula; different covalent arrangement
Geometric Isomers
Molecules with the same covalent partnerships but with different arrangements around a C=C double bond
Enantiomers
mirror images of molecules