26 terms

APES Withgott and Laposata Chapter 10 Agriculture, Biotechnology, and the Future of Food

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Food Security
Every person in a given area has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life.
Transgenic Crop
Plant varieties that have had one or more genes altered through the use of genetic technologies; also called genetically modified organisms, or GMOs.
Undernourished
Having insufficient food, water or other substances for good health and condition.
Overnutrition
Too much food energy or excess nutrients to the degree of causing disease or increasing risk of disease; a form of malnutrition.
Malnutrition
Any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.
Green Revolution
A shift in agricultural practices in the twentieth century that included new management techniques, mechanization, fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop varieties, and resulted in increased food production.
Pesticides
Any one of various substances used to kill harmful insects (insecticide), fungi (fungicide), vermin, or other living organisms that destroy or inhibit plant growth, carry disease, or are otherwise harmful.
Biocontrol or Biological Control
Use of one kind of organism that is a predator or parasite of a pest species in order to reduce or eliminate populations of the pest.
Bacillus thuringiensis
A naturally occurring soil bacterium that produces a protein that kills many pests, including caterpillars and the larvae of some flies and beetles.
Integrated Pest Management or IPM
Each crop and its pests are evaluated as parts of an ecological system. Then farmers develop control program that uses combination of cultivation, biological controls, and chemical tools and techniques, applied in carefully coordinated way.
Pollination
The placement of pollen onto the stigma of a carpel by wind or animal carriers, a prerequisite to fertilization.
Genetic Engineering
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.
Genetically Modified Organisms
An organism whose genetic material has been altered through some genetic engineering technology or technique.
Recombinant DNA
A section of DNA, often in the form of a plasmid, which is formed by joining DNA sections from two different sources.
Biotechnology
A form of technology that uses living organisms or organic matter, usually genetic material, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Precautionary principle
A guiding principle in making decisions about the environment, cautioning to consider carefully the potential consequences of actions before taking action
Seed banks
Institutions that preserve seed types as a kind of living museum and a sort of back up for earth's genetic diversity.
Feedlots or Factory Farms (CAFOs)
Places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms. (Confined Animal Feeding Operations)
Aquaculture
Growing and harvesting of fish and shellfish for human use in freshwater ponds, irrigation ditches, and lakes, or in cages or fenced-in areas of coastal lagoons and estuaries.
Sustainable Agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
organic agriculture
Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and other agrochemicals.
virtual water
Water that is not directly consumed but is used to produce food and other products.
glyphosate
a synthetic herbicide (Round Up) developed by Monsanto that kills most non-woody plants - except GMOs that are resistant
precautionary principle
when there is uncertainty about risks of new actions or policies, the burden of proof of safety falls on those taking the action
pest
any organism that damages plants that are valuable to us
fertilizer
A substance that provides nutrients to help crops grow better