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Chem 108 - Chapter 1: Stuff and Energy
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (61)
Science is a __________ for gaining knowledge and understanding of reality.
method
Science is able to produce ____________________ with predictive value.
generalizations
Which of the following two methods are used to acquire predictive power in science?
A) Scientific Theory
B) Scientific Model
C) Scientific Law
D) Scientific Practice
A, C
What is the first thing you do to develop a scientific theory or law?
observe
Scientific theory uses __________ and explanations to make sense of what can be observed. The first guess in attempting to understand these observations is called a __________.
models, hypothesis
True or False: A hypothesis can be tested by an experiment or through additional observations.
True
What does a hypothesis become when it's validated by other experiments or new observations?
(a) theory
What field uses the the word "diagnosis" instead of theory or model?
the healthcare field
A scientific law is a __________ about something that generally occurs.
statement
True or False: A scientific law offers an explanation as to why something generally occurs.
False
Chemistry is the study of matter and how it interacts with other __________ and/or __________.
matter, energy
In order for something to be matter, what are two things it must have?
A) Space (to occupy)
B) Surface Area
C) Volume
D) Mass
A, D
A __________ (physical/chemical) property is a characteristic that can be determined without changing it into a different substance.
physical
Crushing sugar is an example of a change in which of its properties, physical or chemical?
physical
A __________ (physical/chemical) property describes how matter is converted into a new substance.
chemical
What type of reaction occurs when sugar is converted into caramel?
(a) chemical reaction
Matter is typically found in one of three different physical __________, sometimes called __________.
phases, states
Which of the following states of matter have a fixed volume?
A) Solid
B) Liquid
C) Gas
D) Plasma
A, B
Which of the following states of matter have a definite shape?
A) Solid
B) Liquid
C) Gas
D) Plasma
A
Which of the following states of matter completely fills the volume of its container?
A) Solid
B) Liquid
C) Gas
D) Plasma
C
True or False: When matter is in a liquid state, it has a definite shape.
False
What state of matter shifts its shape to match its container?
Gas(eous state)
Yes/No: Is converting matter between solid, liquid, and gas an example of a chemical change?
No (it's a physical change)
Which of the following is NOT an example of a phase change?
A) Dissolving Salt into Water
B) Boiling Water
C) Melting an Iron Rod
D) Freezing Ice Cream
A
Energy is commonly defined as the ability to do __________.
work
What two forms is energy most commonly found in?
A) Electric Field Energy
B) Potential Energy
C) Static Energy
D) Kinetic Energy
B, D
Potential energy is __________ (stored/exerted) energy; it has the potential to do work.
stored
Explanation: How is water stored in a dam an example of potential energy?
If a valve is opened releasing all the water, the energy is used to move the water.
Kinetic energy is the energy of __________.
Motion
Any time matter is moving, it has __________ (potential/kinetic) energy.
kinetic
Does matter tend to exist in its highest energy state or its lowest?
lowest
Which are mainly examples of potential energy and which are mainly examples of kinetic energy?
A) A mountain climber sits at the top of a peak.
B) A mountain climber rappels down a cliff.
C) A hamburger sits on a plate.
D) A nurse inflates a blood pressure cuff.
Potential: A, C; Kinetic: B, D
Measurement consist of two parts, a __________ and a __________.
number, unit
What is the SI unit name and symbol for length?
meter (m)
What is the SI unit name and symbol for mass?
kilogram (kg)
What is the SI unit name and symbol for time?
second (s)
What is the SI unit name and symbol for temperature?
Kelvin (K)
List the names of the following symbols in order presented separated by commas: ft, in, g, lb, L
feet, inch, gram, pound, liter
Feet and inches are units for what type of measurement?
length
Grams and pounds are units for what type of measurement?
mass
Liters are a unit for what type of measurement?
volume
What are the two unit names and symbols for temperature?
Fahrenheit (F) and Celsius (C)
Explanation: Why do we use scientific notation in science?
To reduce the size of small or large numbers commonly found in science.
Values expressed in scientific notation are written as a number between _____ (0/1) and _____ (10/100) multiplied by a power of _____ (2/10).
1, 10, 10
An exponent with a positive value (+) tells you how many times to __________ a number by 10.
multiply
How many times do we need to multiply 10 to 3.5 if the number written in scientific notation is 3.5 x 10^4?
4 (times)
An exponent with a negative value (-) tells you how many times to __________ a number by 10.
divide
How many times do we need to divide 4.8 by 10 if the number written in scientific notation is 4.8 x 10^-5?
5 (times)
The first step in converting a number to scientific notation is to move the decimal point of the original number to the __________ (left/right) until you reach the first __________-most (left/right) non-zero number.
right x2
Is the exponent positive or negative when you move the decimal point to the left?
positive
Is the exponent positive or negative when you move the decimal point to the right?
negative
Convert this number to scientific notation: 0.00035
3.5 x 10^-4
Convert this number to scientific notation: 0.0445
4.45 x 10^-2
Convert this number to scientific notation: 0.00000003554
3.554 x 10^-8
Convert this number to scientific notation: 144
1.44 x 10^2
When converting from scientific notation back to regular notation, what value indicates how many times you should move the decimal?
the exponent
If the exponent in a number written in scientific notation is positive, which way would you move the decimal if you converted it back to regular notation?
right
If the exponent in a number written in scientific notation is negative, which way would you move the decimal if you converted it back to regular notation?
left
How many times and what direction would you move the decimal point if you converted 3.7 x 10^5 into regular notation? What is the end result?
5 times, right; 370000
How many times and what direction would you move the decimal point if you converted 1.604 x 10^-3 into regular notation? What is the end result?
3 times, left; 0.001604
This is related to how close a measured value is to a true value.
Accuracy
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