BIO-322 Quiz 1

Cofactors ___________________ and _________________
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_________________= number of protons + neutronsatomic weightIons are __________ atomschargedAn atom that gains or loses neutrons becomes an ______________ of the same elementisotopeAn atom that gains or loses electrons becomes an ___________ of the same elemention_______________ lost electrons and are positively chargedcations_____________ gained electrons and are negatively chargedanions_______________ are formed by the transfer of electronsionic bonds_____________ are formed by the sharing of electronscovalent_________________ are formed between atoms of widely differing numbers of protons (such as oxygen and hydrogen) which share electrons unequallypolar covalent bondsThe partial positive and negative charges of H and O in adjacent water molecules interact to form a _______________ (not covalent bonds)hydrogen bondHydrogen bonds increase ______________________cohesiveness of waterPolar molecules (which contain hydrogen bonds) are ___________________ and dissolve easily in waterhydrophilicNon-polar molecules (which mostly contain carbon and hydrogen) are _____________ and do not dissolve easily in waterhydrophobic___________________ are necessary for life: it takes a lot of energy to break themstrong covalent bondsNon-covalent interactions (ionic, hydrogen bonds) are less ___________stableMacromolecules responsible for most of the form and order of living systems are generated by ____________________ of small organic repeating units called _______________________polymerization, monomersFormation of each macromolecule occurs via a _____________________, stepwise addition of new monomeric units via removal of a water moleculecondensation reactionMacromolecules have _________________; the chemistry differs at each end of the polymerdirectionalityDegradation of polymers occurs via _______________, breaking the bond between monomers through addition of one H+ and one OH- (a water molecule)hydrolysisEvery amino acid has the same basic structure: ___________, ___________, ____________, _______________central carbon, amino group, carboxyl group, side chain____________/___________ are chains of amino acidsproteins, polypeptides___________ are important macromolecules that occur almost everywhere in the cell and serve as enzymes for chemical reactions, support the structure of cells, function in cellular transport, communication, defense, etc.proteinsProtein structure is determined by ___________________non-covalent linkages between amino acidsThe function of a protein is completely dependent on its _________________structure_____________ and ______________ can regulate protein structure/functiontemperature, pHNucleotide consists of ______________, ________________ and ______________phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar, nitrogenous baseTwo _____________ and ________________ polynucleotide strands of DNA twist around a common axis to form a _________________ spiral structureantiparallel, complementary, right handed________________ polysaccharides are used for generation of energystorageThe most familiar storage polysaccharides are ___________ in plant cells and _______________ in animal cells and bacteriastarch, glycogen_______________ polysaccharides make up the structure of tissuesstructuralThe best known structural polysaccharide is the ___________ found in plant cell wallscellulose________________ are not long polymers formed by condensation of monomeric units, but they are regarded as macromolecules because of their high molecular weightlipidsTwo types of lipids, ____________ and __________________ are major components of cell membranesphospholipids, steroids (cholesterol)___________ (components of some lipids) are long unbranched hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group at one end: The _________ carboxyl group is the head and the ___________ hydrocarbon chain is the tailfatty acids, polar, nonpolarWhat are the inclusions?lipid droplets, ribosomesWhat are the four components of the cytoplasm?cytosol, membranous organelles, inclusions, protein fibersThe cytoskeleton is composed of three different types of long protein fibers: _________________, ________________, _______________microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules_________________: control of cell shape, movement, cytoskeleton, associates with myosin for muscle contractionmicrofilaments________________: control of cell shape, resistance to mechanical stress, cytoskeleton, hair and nails, protective barrier of skinintermediate filaments______________: cell division (spindle apparatus), vesicle trafficking, movement of cilia, flagella, and chromosomes, intracellular transport of organelles, cytoskeletonmicrotubules_________________ extracts energy from the splitting of sugarglycolysisThe ___________________ generates many energy-rich carrier molecules like NADHcitric acid cycle______________________ uses oxygen to convert NADH stores into ATP, the most commonly used energy carrier in cellular chemical reactionsoxidative phosphorylationWhat is physiology?study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component partsHow are anatomy and physiology related?structure and function are closely relatedWhat are the levels of organization in physiology (from smallest to largest)?molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations of one speciesWhat are the main components and main functions of the digestive system?mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus; food processing (ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination)What are the main components and main functions of the circulatory system?heart, blood vessels, blood; internal distribution of materialsWhat are the main components and main functions of the respiratory system?lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes; gas exchange (uptake of oxygen and disposal of carbon dioxide)What are the main components and main functions of the immune and lymphatic system?bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymph vesselsWhat are the main components and main functions of the excretory system?kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra; disposal of metabolic wastes and regulation of osmotic balance of bloodWhat are the main components and main functions of the endocrine system?pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal, and other hormone-secreting glands; coordination of body activities (such as digestion and metabolism)What are the main components and main functions of the reproductive system?ovaries or testes and associated organs; reproductionWhat are the main components and main functions of the nervous system?brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs; coordination of body activities and detection of stimuli and formulation of responses to themWhat are the main components and main functions of the integumentary system?skin and its derivatives (such as hair, claws, skin glands); protection against mechanical injury, infection, and dehydration, thermoregulationWhat are the main components and main functions of the skeletal system?skeleton (bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage); body support, protection of internal organs, movementWhat are the main components and main functions of the muscular system?skeletal muscles; locomotion and other movementWhat are examples of structures with a lumen?heart, vessels, lungs, GI tractWhat is a lumen?a defined/hollow internal environmentWhat are the three body cavities?cranial, thoracic, abdomino-pelvic_______________ houses the lungspleural sac______________ houses the heartpericardial sacCranial cavity houses the ______________brainThoracic cavity houses the ___________lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, thoracic ductAbdomino-pelvic cavity houses the ___________________stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, intestines, bladder, reproductive organs (NOT KIDNEYS)Anatomical organization is from the perspective of the ___________ (left vs. right)subjectWhat parts of the body does the frontal plane divide?anterior/ventral and posterior/dorsalWhat parts of the body does the transverse plane divide?superior and inferiorWhat parts of the body does the sagittal plane divide?left and rightOrganisms use _________________ to maintain a "steady state" or internal balance regardless of external environmenthomeostasisWhat are the three steps of homeostasisstimulus, response, and feedbackMechanisms of homeostasis moderate changes in the ________________. For a given variable, fluctuations above or below a ______________ serve as a ________________; these are detected by a _______________. A control center then generates output that triggers a ________________. The response returns the variable back to the set point- ______________________.internal environment, set point, stimulus, sensor, response, negative feedback___________: the response counteracts the stimulus, shutting off the response loopnegative feedback________________: the response reinforces the stimulus, sending the variable farther from the setpointpositive feedbackIn positive feed back _________________ is required to shut off the feedback cyclean outside factorPositive feedback (feed forward): ________________________enhances production of productIn positive feedback, ___________________________________change in some variable triggers mechanism to amplify rather than reverse changeWhat is an example of positive feedback?pressure of baby's head triggers uterine contractions, causing pressure, then contractions, more pressure, etc.Homeostasis is ____________________dynamic steady stateWhat is homeostasis?constantly maintaining the internal environment of the body within a finite range of normal values in response to a changing external environmentHomeostasis is NOT ________________static/unchanging______________ is the study of tissue structurehistologyWhat is a tissue?a grouping of cells and cellular products with a common structure/functionWhat are the four types of tissues?epithelial, connective, muscle, nervousWhich tissue is the most by % weight?muscle (then connective)____________________: protein complexes which connect and hold cells togethercell-cell junctions_________________: protein complexes which connect cells to the extracellular matrixcell-matrix adhesionsGap junctions are ________________ junctionscommunicatingGap junctions are ___________ that facilitate __________________open channels, conduction of ions and other small solutes between cellsTight junctions are ______________ junctionsoccludingTight junctions maintain _________________ and facilitate _____________tight zippering of plasma membranes, restricted movement of solutes across cellsDesmosomes and adherens are _______________ junctionsanchoringDesmosomes and adherens junctions have ________________ and are known for __________________mechanical attachment between cells, resistance to stressWhat are the two types of anchoring junctions that form cell-cell junctions?adherens and desmosomesWhat are the two types of anchoring junctions that form cell-matrix junctions?focal adhesion and hemi-desmosomeExtracellular matrix is composed of _______________________ (fibronectin, collagen, elastin, and laminin) and _____________________ (contain high proportion of polysaccharides)structural protein fibers, proteoglycansThe ECM ____________________ and is made and secreted by _______________holds cells and tissues together, their cells_______________ lines external and internal surfaces of most organsepithelial tissueAny substance crossing the internal/external boundary crosses __________________an epitheliumWhat are the different structures of epithelial tissues?simple, stratified, squamous, cuboidal, columnarWhat are the different functions of epithelial tissue?exchange, transport, secretory, protective, ciliatedEpithelial cells have ________________ and attach to the ________________/________________polarity, basal lamina/basement membraneWhat structure provides separation between apical and basal membranes?tight junction_________________ connects epithelial layer to underlying tissuebasal laminaProtective epithelium is mostly found in __________________ systemskin/integumentaryWhich types of cells are in the protective epithelium?cuboidal, squamous, stratifiedHow important is cell-cell adhesion in protective epithelium?keeps water in and pathogens out_________________ lines lumen of blood vessels and capillariesendothelium________________ allows exchange ____________ cellsexchange, betweenWhat junctions do exchange epithelium have?no junctions, just poresWhich types of cells are in transporting epithelium?simple cuboidal, columnarIn transporting epithelium there is _________ free exchange; strong ___________________no, tight junctionsSelective _______________ in transporting epithelium which is prevalent in __________ and _____________ systemsimport/export of solutes, intestines, kidneysTight junctions of transporting epithelium separate _________________ and ______________ so that ______________________apical membrane, basolateral membrane, nutrients are forced to go through cellSecretory epithelium is found in __________________ and _______________exocrine glands, endocrine glands_______________: releases products through ducts to external environment (outside the body)exocrine gland___________________: ductless, release products/hormones into blood streamendocrine glandWhat are examples of exocrine secretions?sweat, sebaceous, salivary, liver, pancreas, mammary, mucousWhat are examples of endocrine glands?pituitary, thymus, thyroid, pineal_______________ glands don't have ducts so their _____________ disappear and secretory cells surround _____________ insteadendocrine, connecting cells, blood vessel______________________ has beating cilia that create _________________ that sweep across the epithelial surfaceciliated epithelium, fluid currentsExchange epithelial tissue has _______ layer of _____________ cells. Special features include _________ between cells permit easy passage of molecules. They are found in __________ and ____________________one, flattened, pores, lungs, lining of blood vesselsTransporting epithelial tissue has _________ layer of _____________ cells. Special features include ___________ that prevent movement between cells and increased ___________________________ by folding of cell membrane into fingerlike microvilli. They are found in _______________, _______________, and ________________one, columnar or cuboidal, tight junctions, surface area, intestine, kidney, exocrine glandsCiliated epithelial tissue has ______________ layer of ________________ cells. Special features include one side covered with __________ to move fluid across surface. They are found in ______________, _____________, __________________, and ______________one, columnar or cuboidal, cilia, nose, trachea, upper airways, female reproductive tractProtective epithelial tissue has __________ layer of _____________ cells. Special features include cells tightly connected by many ____________________. They are found in ______________ and ___________________many, flattened and then polygonal, desmosomes, skin, lining of cavities that open to the environmentSecretory epithelial tissue has ________________ layer of _____________ cells. Special features include __________________ filled with membrane-bound secretory granules and extensive RER and ________________ containing lipid droplets and extensive SER. They are found in ________________ and _______________one to many, columnar or polygonal, protein-secreting cells, steroid-secreting cells, exocrine glands, endocrine glands_________________ is a diverse class of tissues that binds and supports other tissuesconnective tissueUnifying features of connective tissue are _______________________ and ____________________ (sometimes called ground substance)loose collection of cells present within, extensive extracellular matrixThe four types of connective tissue are:loose connective tissue (under skin/supports viscera), dense/fibrous connective tissue (tendons/ligaments), supporting connective tissue (cartilage/bone/adipose), bloodLoose connective tissue is composed of ________________, _____________, and ____________. It has an ___________________ and _________________ to _____________________.elastin, collagen, fibroblasts, extensive collagen ECM, attaches epithelia to underlying tissue, provide shape and structure to organs______________ secrete matrix proteinsfibroblastsDense/fibrous connective tissue has ______________ and a ___________________. It includes ___________ and _______________.fibroblasts, densely packed ECM, tendons, ligaments_______________ connects muscle to bonetendon______________ connects bone to boneligamentWhich one (tendon or ligament) has elastin?ligament_______________ has a flexible, elastic matrix and contains more water (shock absorption). It is secreted by ____________________ and gets __________________cartilage, chondrocytes, no blood supply_____________ has a strong, rigid calcified matrix with _______________ that deposit calcium phosphate crystalsbone, osteoblasts_______________ is contains _______________ composed entirely of fat dropletsadipose, adipocytes