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CB Test 1
Terms in this set (29)
Which two individuals were the "founders" of cell biology?
Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwann
What is the cell theory?
All living things are composed of one ore more cells. The cell is the basic unit of life and all cells arise from preexisting cells
What is the difference between magnification & resolution in microscopy?
Magnification is the ability to make and object seem bigger while resolution is the ability to distinguish objects separated by small distances.
What are three ways to obtain contrast when using a light microscope? (One way is good for dead cells but the other two work well with live ones.)
Stain Cells,Use phase contrast,Use internal fluorescence
What is the main difference between the process of subcellular fractionation and the process of density gradient centrifugation when trying to separate the parts of lysed cells?
Subcellular fractionation is the separation using different speeds and density gradient centrifugation is the separation due to gradients.
How would you make a primary animal cell culture from a piece of mouse liver?
A piece of a tissue is dispersed into a suspension of individual cells, then those cells are plated in a culture dish in nutrient medium (liquid medium). The first culture established is called the primary culture.
What does "passaging" mean in cell culture?
It basically means to transfer one culture from one petri dish to a new petri dish. Example transferring cells from the primary culture and plating them in lower density medium to form a secondary culture.
What does reverse transcriptase do? What kind of organism do we find reverse transcriptase in? Give me two specific examples of such organisms.
Reverse transcriptase allows us to go from RNA to cDNA, we want to go from RNA to DNA because it is more stable and will allow us to study gene expressions. We normally find reverse transcriptase in viruses and bacteria. Two examples would be E. coli, and HIV virus. Other two examples would be MMLV, AVM
Explain the steps of the hybrid capture system in the detection of HPV. (You can use drawings to do this. Every step must be explained.)
a. Take the patients DNA and use the RNA probe for the big 13 that come in the kit, put it in the DNA if the HPV is in the DNA the probe will grab it and bind it making a RNA-DNA hybrid, then you would place the RNA-DNA molecule is placed in plate wells that contains antiRNA-DNA antibodies in each well the antibodies will capture and bind to if it recognizes the RNA-DNA hybrid molecule. Then you would add another copy of the antibody is added to each well but this copy will contain an enzyme (called alkaline phosphatase). We will then add chemicals that the enzyme will interact with in each well so that if there is a hybrid molecule is present the well will change color (blue purple precipitate) and allow us to see if HPV is present.
What are the 4 main categories of molecules in the cell?
Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates,
What 4 purposes do carbohydrates serve in the typical cell?
Energy storage, Structural support, Cell signaling, Markers on proteins/lipids for transportation
Name 3 examples of monosaccharides.
Name 3 examples of Disaccharides.
Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose
Name 3 examples of Polysaccharides.
Glycogen, Cellulose, Amylopectin
What are the 3 main purpose of lipids in a cell?
High energy food storage, cell membrane structure, cell signaling (lipid hormones)
What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid?
Saturated fatty acids have only single bonds with hydrogen and unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms.
What are the names of the 4 most commonly found phospholipids in a typical cell membrane?
Phosphatidylcholine, Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphatidylserine, Sphingomyelin
Which amino acids are basic?
Lysine, Arginine, Histidine
Which amino acids are acidic?
Aspartic acid (Aspartate), Glutamic acid (Glutamate)
Which amino acids are polar?
Serine, Threonine, Tyrosine, Asparagine, Glutamine
Which amino acids are hydrophobic?
Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Methionine, Proline, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Cysteine
What are the two most common types of protein secondary structure? How do they form? In general, what do they look like?
Alpha helix- form by when a region of polypeptide chain coils around itself with the CO group forming a H bond with the NH group of a peptide bond located four residues downstream.
Beta sheet- form by when two parts of a polypeptide chain lie side by side with H bonds between them. Can oriented parallel or antiparallel.
Describe a protein "domain".
Are basic unit of tertiary structures they are folded 3D structures usually containing 50-200 aa
How would you denature a protein? Know at least 3 ways.
Heat, pH change, DTT, SDS, Concentrated inorganic salt
What's the difference between a nucleoside and a nucleotide?
A nucleoside consists of a nitrogenous base covalently attached to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) but without the phosphate group. A nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and one to three phosphate groups.
What 2 kinds of molecules CAN pass freely through the cell membrane?
Small nonpolar uncharged molecules like O2 and CO2
What 2 kinds of molecules CANNOT do so?
Large polar molecules like: glucose, amino acids
What does "recombinant DNA" mean?
Molecules of DNA from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations The combination of a temple DNA with a foreign DNA from a bacteria, animal etc. that is combined to produce a new DNA strand.
What are the two major kinds of gels and what are they used for?
Agarose gel: Used for DNA and RNA
Polyacrylamide gel: used for DNA, RNA and Proteins (SDS-PAGE)
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