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A&P Lab Exam 2
Terms in this set (175)
Simple Squamous Epithelium
a single layer of flat cells found in areas with a lot of diffusion, filtration (example: capiliaries)
simple squamous epithelium that lines the blood vessles, heart and lymphatic vessles
simple squamous epithelium that forms serous membranes (examples: pleura, pericardium and peritoneium)
membrane that secretes lubricating fluid
Simple Cubodial Epithelium
a single layer of cubodial or hexagonal shaped cells, often form ducts and tubes (examples: Pancreas and kidneys have tubes made of this epithelium)
Simple Columnar and Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
epithelium where ciliated forms have cilia to move stuff along the surface. (example: respiratory tract). Non-ciliated function in absorbtion and protection (example: intestines)
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
epithelium where cells in the apical layer are flat. cells in the basal layer are always multiplying and the new cells are pushed up toward the apical surface. Cells that are closer to the apical surface are farther from their blood supply and eventually die (sloph off) and are replaced by newer cells (ex: skin)
Keritanized stratified squamous epithelium
epithelium where the layers closer to the apical surface contain keratin which protects the skin
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
epithelium that allows the area to remain moist
cells found in the urinary system (urinary bladder) As the bladder stretches the cells become more flattened out and squamous like. Allows the bladder to hold variable amounts of fluid without rupturing.
tissue that binds, supports and strengthens tissue, protects internal organs, divides tissue into compartments, transport system (blood), energy reserves (fat), immune response (white blood cells and other immune cells). exists either in the form of cells or extracellular matrix (ECM)
cell that stores triglycerides
Areolar Connective Tissue
Loose connective tissue, it combines with adipose tissue to form the sub-cutaneous layer. Attaches skin to underlying tissue.
Loose connective tissue, it stores fat and is made of adipose (fat) cells (adipocyte). The nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell are pushed to the edge because one big triglyceride droplet takes up space in the entire cell.
Reticular Connective Tissue
Loose connective tissue, it is made up of reticular fibers and reticular cells that form the stroma (supporting framework) for the liver and spleen
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
is made up of bundles of collagen fibers, regularly arranged in parallel patterns (examples: tendons, ligaments)
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
irregularly arranged collagen fibers found in parts that experience a lot of pulling forces (example:skin)
Elastic Connective Tissue
Dense connective tissue consisting of branching elastic fibers that can coil back to their original shape. (example: Lungs)
made of elastic fibers and collagen fibers in chondroitin sulfate.
spaces in the extracellular matrix of bone tissue
cartilage that acts to reduce friction and absorbs shock. example: knee joint
is the strongest type of cartilage. example: interbertebral disk between vertebrae
cartilage that provides strength and elasticity (example: external ear)
is a flat sheet of tissue that covers or lines a part of the body
mucus membrane, serous membrane, cutaneous membrane are what type of membrane?
This membrane lines joints and contains connective tissue, no epithelium
membrane that lines the gastrointestinal, respiratory, reproductive and urinary system
membrane made of simple squamous epithelial, it is areolar CT and covered by mesothelium. The mesothelium secretes fluid to reduce friction between organs. Examples: pleura, pericardium, peritonnieum
membrane of the skin - consists of an epidermis (epithelial tissue) and dermis (connective tissue)
Loose Connective Tissue
Areolar, adipose, reticular connective tissue
Dense Connective Tissue
Dense regular, dense irregular, dense elastic
hyaline, fibro, elastic
covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, body cavities and ducts, forms glands
tissue that protects and supports the body
tissue for movement, generates heat
tissue that makes up the nerves, brain and spinal cord
a selective barrier that limits and aids the transfer of substances into and out of the body. Serves as secretory surfaces (secretes mucus). Also serves as protective surfaces.
made up of two layers epidermis and dermis
tissue beneath the skin, consists of areolar and adipose tissue
5 layers: stratum cornium, stratum lucidum, stratum gralulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
layer of the epidermis, composed of a single layer of cubodial or columnar cells called keratinocytes
are epidermal cells that produce melanin. Are found in the stratum basale.
can extend to cells far away from it. They deposit melanin granules into nearby keratinocytes.
layer in the epidermis, is superficial to the stratum basale. This layer contains mainly keratinocytes that are very tightly joined together with desmosomes.
are epidermal cells that can detect foreign microrganisms and kill them (immune cells).
layer in the epidermis, superficial to the stratum spinosum, this layer contains keratinocytes tha have begun the process of programmed cell death or apoptosis
programmed cell death
is a protein that converts the tonofiliments into keratin in the skin
in this layer are lamellar granules which secrete lipids. They are hydrophobic and spread throughout the stratum Granulosum and superficial layers of the epidermis to form a water repellent barrier to trap the body's water in and keep outside water out.
layer in the epidermis, is superficial to the Stratum Granulosum, by the time the keratinocytes reach this layer they are no longer alive. Contains lamallar granules.
skin layer that is only found in areas where the skin is thicker (examples: fingertips, palms, soles of the feet). It contains lots of keratin and thickened plasma membranes
top layer of the epidermis, composed of many layers of dead keratinocytes that contain keratin. Also contains lamallar granules. Constant friction will result in a calus which is a thickening of this layer.
skin layer that contains, connective tissue, fibroblasts, macrophages and adipose cells
hair follicles, blood vessels, nerves, glands are found here
skin layer that is divided into two regions: papillary region and reticular region
this region in the dermis has pipillae
this region in the dermis of the skin has dense irregular connective tissue and lots of collagen and elastic fibers
elastic and collagen fibers
The combination of these two fibers in the reticular region of the skin provides the skin with extensibility and elasticity
this system provides support, protection, movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, trigliceride storage
This happens when red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
this process regulates calcium and phosphorus
ends of a long bone
shaft of a long bone
in growing bones this contains the growth plate
growth plate, located in the metaphysis
when growth is complete the growth plate becomes this
a thin layer of hyaline cartilage in the area of the epiphysis where there is a joint
connective tissue that covers the bone everwhere except where there is articular cartilage
marrow cavity. It contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults
lines the medulary cavity
is the most abundant salt in the bone. It combines with calcium hydroxide to form hydroxyapatite crystals
formed from calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide
This happens when salts are deposited around collagen fibers and then crystalized. Hardness of bone is due to this crystalized salt
flexibility and tensile strength of bone is due to this fiber
undergo cell division to create osteoblasts
build bone tissue. They synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other components of the ECM and as they are surrounded by the ECM, they are trapped in their own secretions and become mature bone cells
mature bone cells that undergo daily metabolism
is a combination of many monocytes into one cell. They are concentrated in the endostium. They release lysosomal enzymes and acids to digest bone matrix.
breakdown of bone ECM (extracellular matrix)
Osteon or Haversian System
The basic unit of compact bone
Perferating canal or volkmann's canal
contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves from the Periosteum that penetrate through the periosteum into the compact bone. They connect with those in the central or haversian canal
Central or Haversian Canal
canals that run longitudinally through bone and are surrounded with concentric lamellae.
rings of calcified bone and ECM
spaces between the lamellae that contain osteocytes
spaces in the lamellae that have some extracellular fluids and contain osteocytes' projections
are able to communicate via gap junctions as well as exchange needed materials such as nutrients, waste, oxygen, etc.
longitudinally aligned along the stress plane and can change direction with changes in stress
contains old osteons, partially destroyed
Spongy bone tissue
20% of the bone is made of this type of bone tissue
the basic unit of spongy bone tissue
lightweight, containing red bone marrow. Site of hemopoiesis
production of blood cells
1. interstitial growth of cartilage on epiphyseal side of epiphyseal plate. 2. replacement of cartilage on diaphyseal side of epiphyseal plate.
site of long bone growth, in the metaphysis region, made up of hyaline cartilage has four zones
Zone of Resting Cartilage
Anchors the epiphyseal plate to the epiphysis (hyaline cartilage)
Zone of Proliferating Cartilage
Chondrocytes are multiplying and appear to be arranged like a stack of coins
Zone of Hypertrophic Cartilage
consists mainly of dead chondrocytes, and the ECM around them has calcified. Osteoclasts dissolve the calcified cartilage and osteoblasts lay down new bone ECM
The constant replacement of old bone tissue with new bone tissue.
The removal of minerals and collagen by osteoclasts
building bone, the addition of minerals and collagen by osteoblasts
Factors that affect bone remodeling
minerals (calcium and phosphorus), vitamins A, C and D, Hormones (growth hormone, thyroid hormone and sex hormones (estrogen/testosterone)
vitamin that stimulates osteoblast activity
vitamin needed for collagen synthesis
vitamin that increases absorbtion of calcium from intestines
bones that lie along the longitudinal axis of the body
bones of the upper and lower limbs and the bones that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton
bones of the skull
Frontal bone, parietal bones (2), occipital bone, temporal bones (2)
immovable joints of the skull that have fused together.
joins the frontal and two parietal bones
joins the right parietal to the left parietal bones
joins the parietal and temporal bones (one on each side)
joins the occipital to the two parietal bones
joins the left and right frontal bones
The skeleton of an embryo consists of cartilage that will become bone. At birth, the bones have begun to form and "spaces" with the cartilage are still present
allow for rapid growth of the brain during infancy
fontanel that connects the left and right frontal and left and right parietal
fontanel that connects left and right parietals and occipital
two fontanels that connect temporal, parietal and frontal (& spenoid)
two fontanels that connect the occipital, temporal and parietal bones
consists of 26 vertebrae: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum and coccyx
three sections: manubrium, body and xyphoid process
disc between each vertebrae made of fibrocartilage
when an intervertebral disc shifts out of its normal position
C1 and C2
allow you to move your head up and down and side to side (atlas and axis)
L2 and L3
the spinal cord ends arond this level of the vertebral column. Spinal fluid samples are taken below this level
originated as five separate vertebrae and fuses by adulthood into one bone
originated as four separate vertebrae and fuses by adulthood into one bone
the upper part of the sturnum, it comes in contact with the clavicle and first two ribs
a strip of cartilage (hyaline) that directly attaches the ribs to the sternum
ribs 11 and 12
inject radioactive material (contrast dye) through an IV to see blood flow in bone tissue. changes in blood flow can indicate different diseases
eventually becomes the epiphyseal line when growth stops
formation of fracture hematoma
step one in bone repair, swelling and inflamation occur and phagocytes and osteoclasts begin to remove dead and damaged tissue
second step in bone repair, fibroblasts from the periosteum invade the fracture area and produce collagen fibers
bony callus formation
step three in bone repair, osteogenic cells nearby create osteoblasts and they form spongy bone trabeculae
step four in bone repair, dead portions of original broken bone are resorbed by osteoclasts, compact bone replaces spongy bone around the perphery of the fracture
can be controlled by the degree of calcium resorption in the bone
refers to removing calcium from the bone into the blood
these break down minerals in bone - release CA2+ into blood = increase CA2+ levels
these absorb CA2+ from blood, used to build bone = decreased CA2+ levels
severe reduction in bone mass
reduced bone mass
blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves
three things that go through the central or haversian canal.
finger bone closest to the hand
bone in the middle of the finger
bone at the end of the finger
number 5 on the hand
number 1 on the hand
phalanges of the foot
smaller of the two bones in the lower leg it sits laterally to the tibia
larger of the two bones in the lower leg. Sits to the medial side.
upper leg bone
lower jaw bone
upper jaw bone
spines of the vertebra
the largest part of a vertebra, and is more or less cylindrical in shape.
center of a vertebra where the spinal cord passes.
bone in the upper arm
forearm bone near the thumb
forearm bone near the pinky
phalanges of the hand
Zone of Calcified Cartilage
consists mainly of dead chondrocytes and the ECM around them has calcified.
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