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Molec Cell -- Cells
Terms in this set (32)
1. all living things are made of 1+ cells
2. cells are the basic unit of all living organisms
3. cells come from cells
Eukaryotic cell division cycle
1. Growth + chromosome replication
Exceptions to the Eukaryotic cell division cycle
the result of multiple rounds of DNA replication WITHOUT mitosis
a plynucleated structure that forms after multiple rounds of mitosis WITHOUT cytokineses
the precursor of the mammalian placenta that forms after multiple rounds of mitosis without cytokinesis of the embryonic cells that invade the uterine wall
What were the seven simple molecules thought to occur on the primitive Earth
What were the results of the Miller-Urey experiments?
simple organic molecules formed under the conditions thought to be characteristic of primitive Earth. From those simpler organic molecules formed more complex organic molecules.
What is necessary for reproduction and evolution? (slide 9)
self-replicating macromolecules- AKA Nucleic Acids
Flow of Genetic Info in Living Cells
DNA replication--> transcription ---> translation
RNA World Hypothesis
Hypothesis that states the first genetic system on earth was RNA based
What are the 2 major pieces of evidence for the RNA World Hypothesis?
1. some RNA molecules (called ribozymes) have enzymatic activity
2. RNA can catalyze the polymerization of nucleotides, including the synthesis of complementary RNA molecules
Why are cells so small?
smaller cells have a greater surface area to volume ratio, which allows them to interact with their surroundings more efficiently
What is the defining feature of Eukaryotes?
What is the more diverse group of cells: prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
What do photosynthetic bacteria obtain their energy from?
All photosynthetic bacteria have
internal membraines where photosynthesis occurs
What are the 2 main methods of photosynthesis that photosynthetic bacteria have?
1. using specialized cells
2. using intracellular membranes
Chemosynthesizers get their energy from ____.
Which is more closely related to Eukaryotes: bacteria or archaea?
No archaea displays ______
oxygen generating photosynthesis
The hypothesis that states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were prokaryotes that entered eukaryotic cells and became specialized to perform specific cellular functions
What evidence is there for the endosymbiosis hypothesis?
-organelles resemble present-day prokaryotes
-organelles have their own DNA in circular chromosomes
-organelle genes resemble those of present-day prokaryotes
-organelles have double membranes
-organelles can divide independently from the cell nucleus
What do plant and fungi cells have that animal cells do not?
a single-cell anaerobic parasite that causes gastrointestinal diseases in humans that represents an intermediate in the evolution of eukaryotic cells- has 2 nuclei but no mitochondria or chloroplasts
single cell living
independent, free-living cells
aggregation of cells of the same species but no division of functions
Colonial Living with Division of Function
aggregation of cells of the same species with different somatic and reproductive functions, but no recognized true multicellularity because cell functions can be reversed
division of functions, terminal cell identities, and multicellularity
Evolution of Multicellularity
from single cell living to colonial living to colonial living with division of functions and then finally true multicellularity
Types of Animal Cells
1. muscle cells
3. Connective tissues
4. Epithelial cells
Basic Properties of Cells
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