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Ch. 3 by Ralph Stair and George Reynold

computer programs

Sequences for instructions for the computer.


the text that describes the program functions to help the user operate the computer system.

personal sphere of influence

the sphere of influence that serves the needs of an individual user.

personal productivity software

the software that enables users to improve their personal effectiveness, increasing the amount of work they can perform and enhancing its quality.


two or more people who work together to achieve a common goal.

workgroup sphere of influence

the sphere of influence that serves the needs of a workgroup.

enterprise sphere of influence

the sphere of influence that serves the needs of the firm in its interaction with its environment.

operating system (OS)

a set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs.


the heart of the operating system, which controls the most critical processes.

user interface

the element of the operating system that allows you to access and command the computer system.

command-based user interface

a user interface that requires you to give text commands to the computer to perform basic activities.

graphical user interface (GUI)

an interface that uses icons and menus displayed on screen to send commands to the computer system.

application program interface (API)

an interface that allows applications to make use of the operating system.

utility programs

programs that help to perform maintenance or correct problems with a computer system.


software that allows different systems to communicate and exchange data.

service-oriented architecture (SOA)

a modular method of developing software and systems that allows users to interact with systems, and systems to interact with each other.

application service provider (ASP)

a company that provides software, support, and the computer hardware on which to run the software from the user's facilities over a network.

software as a service (SaaS)

a service that allows businesses to subscribe to web-delivered businesses application software by paying a monthly service charge or a peruse fee.

software suite

a collection of single application programs packaged in a bundle.

workgroup application software

software that supports teamwork, whether in one location or around the world.

enterprise resource planning (ERP) software

a set of integrated programs that manage a company's vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization.

programming languages

sets of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules for constructing statements by which humans can communicate instructions to be executed by a computer.


a set of rules associated with a programming language.


a special software prgram that converts the programmer's source code into the machine-language instructions consisting of binary digits.

single-user license

a software license that permits only one person to use the software, typically on only one computer.

open-source software

software that is freely available to anyone in a form that can be easily modified.

shareware and freeware

software that is very expensive or free, but whose source code cannot be modified.

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