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Chapter 3: Cells: The Living Units n

A plasma-membrane lipid possessing a sugar chain that functions in cell recognition


The most abundant molecule found within the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane


A plasma-membrane lipid that improves the rigidity of the plasma membrane and increases the membrane's impermeability to water


The component of the plasma membrane that can act as a doorway for charged particles


The method by which large particles and macromolecules enter the cell by an infolding of the plasma membrane


The movement of water across a selectively permeable plasma membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration


The mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell cytoplasm to the outside of the cell by the fusion of a vesicle with plasma membrane


The tendency of molecules to move along their concentration gradient from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration


These methods carry molecules, pump molecules, or form channels through which specific molecules pass across the plasma membrane

. Transport mechanisms

Endocytosis of large items, such as bacteria or cellular debris


Endocytosis of a tiny quantity of extracellular fluid containing solute molecules


Endocytosis that utilizes selective plasma membrane receptor proteins

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

By which method does Hormones such as insulin, low-density lipoproteins move into the cell?

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

By which method does Water movement across membrane move into the cell?


By which method does Movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other small uncharged molecules across membrane move into the cell?


By which method does Movement of large particles, bacteria, or cellular debris by endocytotic vesicle move into the cell?


By which method Molecules moving against the concentration gradient move into the cell?

Active transport mechanisms

Mitochondrion characteristics.

Cristae; matrix

Ribosome characteristics

Composed of two subunits; can be "free" in the cytosol or attached to rough ER

Rough endoplasmic characteristicsreticulum

. Produces protein transport vesicles

Golgi apparatus characteristics

Possesses a cis and trans side; composed of cisternae

Centrioles characteristics

Composed of microtubules arranged in nine groups of three

These thinnest members of the cytoskeleton are composed of strands of actin protein


These cytoskeleton members are tough, insoluble protein fibers that possess a high tensile strength

Intermediate filaments

These hollow tubular members of the cytoskeleton are composed of spherical protein subunits called tubulin and can be quickly assembled and disassembled by the cell


Strands of DNA and associated histones in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell


Membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell

Nuclear envelope, or nuclear membrane

Tiny passageway that allows large molecules to freely pass in and out of the nucleus

Nuclear pore

Dark-staining body found in the nucleus of a cell that functions in producing ribosomes


Jelly-like fluid found within the nucleus of a cell


Dark-staining, rod-shaped structures composed of highly coiled chromatin, found in cells undergoing cell division


Spherical protein molecules around which DNA wraps

Extended chromatin

Dark-staining regions in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell composed of tightly coiled strands of DNA

Condensed chromatin

A section of DNA and its eight associated histone proteins


G1 interphase

The cell is metabolically active, synthesizing proteins, and growing rapidly

G2 interphase

Cell division enzymes are synthesized, and the centrioles complete replication

S interphase

DNA replicates itself


Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes


Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes


Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes


Identical sets of chromosomes are moved to opposite sides of the cell


Protein synthesis

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Lipid synthesis


Intracellular digestion


Organize the spindle during mitosis


Support the cell and give it shape; involved in cell movements



Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Transport vesicles

Golgi apparatus

. Lysosomes and secretory vesicles


Cilia and flagella (microtubules)




. Division of the parent cell cytoplasm into two daughter cells


Separation of two identical sets of chromosomes to opposite sides of the parent cell


Non-dividing stage involving rapid growth, DNA replication, and preparation for division


Carries genetic instructions from nucleus to the site of protein synthesis


Uses an anticodon to guide its attached amino acid to the complementary codon on the mRNA at the ribosome


Combines in a complex with proteins to make the large and small subunits of a ribosome


Can control, or inhibit, certain genes


Tiny fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane; increase surface area for absorption


. Motile cellular extensions found in large numbers in some epithelial cells


. Long, cellular projections that are tail-like and aid in propulsion

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