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61 terms

Chapter 3: Cells: The Living Units

Chapter 3: Cells: The Living Units n
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A plasma-membrane lipid possessing a sugar chain that functions in cell recognition
Glycolipid
The most abundant molecule found within the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane
Phospholipid
A plasma-membrane lipid that improves the rigidity of the plasma membrane and increases the membrane's impermeability to water
Cholesterol
The component of the plasma membrane that can act as a doorway for charged particles
Protein
The method by which large particles and macromolecules enter the cell by an infolding of the plasma membrane
Endocytosis
The movement of water across a selectively permeable plasma membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Osmosis
The mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell cytoplasm to the outside of the cell by the fusion of a vesicle with plasma membrane
Exocytosis
The tendency of molecules to move along their concentration gradient from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Diffusion
These methods carry molecules, pump molecules, or form channels through which specific molecules pass across the plasma membrane
. Transport mechanisms
Endocytosis of large items, such as bacteria or cellular debris
Phagocytosis
Endocytosis of a tiny quantity of extracellular fluid containing solute molecules
Pinocytosis
Endocytosis that utilizes selective plasma membrane receptor proteins
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
By which method does Hormones such as insulin, low-density lipoproteins move into the cell?
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
By which method does Water movement across membrane move into the cell?
Osmosis
By which method does Movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other small uncharged molecules across membrane move into the cell?
Diffusion
By which method does Movement of large particles, bacteria, or cellular debris by endocytotic vesicle move into the cell?
Phagocytosis
By which method Molecules moving against the concentration gradient move into the cell?
Active transport mechanisms
Mitochondrion characteristics.
Cristae; matrix
Ribosome characteristics
Composed of two subunits; can be "free" in the cytosol or attached to rough ER
Rough endoplasmic characteristicsreticulum
. Produces protein transport vesicles
Golgi apparatus characteristics
Possesses a cis and trans side; composed of cisternae
Centrioles characteristics
Composed of microtubules arranged in nine groups of three
These thinnest members of the cytoskeleton are composed of strands of actin protein
Microfilaments
These cytoskeleton members are tough, insoluble protein fibers that possess a high tensile strength
Intermediate filaments
These hollow tubular members of the cytoskeleton are composed of spherical protein subunits called tubulin and can be quickly assembled and disassembled by the cell
Microtubules
Strands of DNA and associated histones in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell
Chromatin
Membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
Nuclear envelope, or nuclear membrane
Tiny passageway that allows large molecules to freely pass in and out of the nucleus
Nuclear pore
Dark-staining body found in the nucleus of a cell that functions in producing ribosomes
Nucleolus
Jelly-like fluid found within the nucleus of a cell
Nucleoplasm
Dark-staining, rod-shaped structures composed of highly coiled chromatin, found in cells undergoing cell division
Chromosomes
Spherical protein molecules around which DNA wraps
Extended chromatin
Dark-staining regions in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell composed of tightly coiled strands of DNA
Condensed chromatin
A section of DNA and its eight associated histone proteins
Nucleosome
G1 interphase
The cell is metabolically active, synthesizing proteins, and growing rapidly
G2 interphase
Cell division enzymes are synthesized, and the centrioles complete replication
S interphase
DNA replicates itself
Metaphase
Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes
Prophase
Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes
Anaphase
Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes
Telophase
Identical sets of chromosomes are moved to opposite sides of the cell
Ribosomes
Protein synthesis
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Lipid synthesis
Lysosomes
Intracellular digestion
Centrioles
Organize the spindle during mitosis
Microtubules
Support the cell and give it shape; involved in cell movements
Mitochondrion
ATP
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Transport vesicles
Golgi apparatus
. Lysosomes and secretory vesicles
Centrioles
Cilia and flagella (microtubules)
Nucleolus
Ribosomes
Cytokinesis
. Division of the parent cell cytoplasm into two daughter cells
Mitosis
Separation of two identical sets of chromosomes to opposite sides of the parent cell
Interphase
Non-dividing stage involving rapid growth, DNA replication, and preparation for division
mRNA
Carries genetic instructions from nucleus to the site of protein synthesis
tRNA
Uses an anticodon to guide its attached amino acid to the complementary codon on the mRNA at the ribosome
rRNA
Combines in a complex with proteins to make the large and small subunits of a ribosome
microRNA
Can control, or inhibit, certain genes
Microvilli
Tiny fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane; increase surface area for absorption
Cilia
. Motile cellular extensions found in large numbers in some epithelial cells
Flagella
. Long, cellular projections that are tail-like and aid in propulsion