APUSH VOCAB Period 3
Terms in this set (149)
Economic policy of England. They wanted to increase profit by using the colonies for raw materials, and creating a monopoly.
Stamp Act 1765
Law passed by Parliament that raised tax money by requiring colonists to pay for an official stamp whenever they bough paper items such as newspapers, licenses, and legal documents
Sons of Liberty
Radical political organization that formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts. Used both peaceful and violent means of protest.
Declaratory Act 1766
Said Britain had complete control over all governments in the colonies and could tax the colonies in any way (Colonists ignored)
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. 4 or 5 colonists killed.
Tea Act 1773
Allowed the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies without taxes. Colonial merchants were replaced, making colonists angry.
Coercive Acts 1774
1. Closed Boston ports until destroyed tea was paid for
2. Stopped town meetings
3. Appointed a military government for Massachusetts
4. Trials of government officials would be in England
5. Forced colonists to accommodate British soldiers.
Boston Port Act
Closed the port of Boston and relocated the customs house so that some important supplies could enter Massachusetts
Patriot of the American Revolution, second president of the US. Attended the Continental Congress in 1744 as a delegate from Georgia. Swayed his countrymen to take revolutionary action against England. 1st vice president
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion. Proved good in mechanical sense, but they were more concerned about money than duty.
(Tories). Colonials loyal to the king during the American Revolution
Virginian who was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and President of the Constitution Convention. Founding father and first President.
General who began the Revolutionary War on the American side but later switched to the British side. Remembered as an example of betrayal.
rights of Englishmen
Rights to trial by jury, security from unlawful entry into one's home, and no taxation without the consent of Parliament
Groups of insurgents in Carolinas who rebelled, didn't pay taxes, opposed corrupt government, and cleared their homeland of outlaw bands of terrorists. Wanted fairer taxation and greater representation.
internal vs external taxation
Taxes based on strictly colonial affairs (EX: property tax) vs Taxes based on mercantile system (EX: trade regulation)
natural (fundamental) rights
Inalienable rights over which government could exercise no control. Life, liberty, happiness
consent of the governed
Idea that government derives its authority by the permission of the people
English general who commanded English forces at Bunker Hill, did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning and joined British army for attack on Philadelphia. Offered Congress the choice to surrender with royal pardon or battle against the odds.
Baron von Steuben
Stern Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. Discoveries in electricity, founded Albany Plan
George Rogers Clark
Frontiersman who led the seizing of three British forts in 1777, British gave north region of Ohio River to Americans. "Washington of the West"
The site where Cornwallis surrendered after the American siege and the British were blocked at the sea
French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War.
Articles of Confederation
1781-1788. First Constitution of the US. (weaknesses- no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Enacted in 1787. One of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. Established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
1789-1795 First Secretary of the Treasury. Advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt
New Jersey Plan
Framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states. Key Points: one house legislature with one vote for each state, the establishment of the acts of Congress as the "supreme law" of the land, and a supreme judiciary with limited power.
Supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
English philosopher in 1600s who strongly believed in government. Claimed that human beings would naturally compete for territory, resources, and power. Without laws people would live with confusion and fear
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Centralized governmental system in which ultimate authority rests in the hands of the national, or central, government.
Powers of government exercised independently by both the federal and state governments, such as the power to tax
A simple win on the battlefield. Opposing sides fight and one side wins while the other side is destroyed, captured, or forced to retreat
Declaration of Causes
Document issued by Second Continental Congress to explain why the Thirteen Colonies had taken up arms in what had become the Revolutionary War. Traced controversy back to Great Britain's acts at Lexington.
Richard Henry Lee
Member of Philadelphia Congress. His resolution that the colonies should be free and independent states was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.
Principal place of business (like Headquarters)
Battle where Howe's troops were in Germantown. Washington tried to force them out of Philadelphia again but was defeated
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Historian who believed that the ideology presented in the Constitution was a result of the economic needs of the land-owning Founding Fathers (rather than philosophical principles). His ideas fell out of favor in the 1950s, when other historians pointed out problems with his research
A law established by following earlier judicial decisions
Taxes on goods brought into the country for sale (tariffs)
A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Powers derived from the "Necessary and Proper" or "Elastic" clause
Allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8)
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots. The army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion.
A position of not taking sides in a conflict
northwest forts (posts)
Showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation because Britain wouldn't leave when they were told to
Pinckney Treaty 1795
Treaty between the US and Spain. Gave the US the right to transport goods on the Mississippi River and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
election of 1796
The first real contested presidential election. Federalists support John Adams, Republicans support Thomas Jefferson. Adams wins, Jefferson becomes VP
Sugar Act of 1764
Act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. Increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Stamp Act Congress
Meeting held in 1765 in New York with delegates from 9 colonies. The Declaration of Rights was written there. Said that only colonies could tax themselves, they had the right to trial by jury, all Rights of Englishmen, and the Parliament could not tax the colonists.
Persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts.
Agreements to not buy or sell goods to Britain. Resulted in the British merchants complaining and repealing the Stamp Act
committees of correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
Intolerable Acts 1774
Laws passed by England to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party
Massachusetts Government Act
Act in which Massachusetts became a Royal Colony and appointed General Gage the new governor
Administration of Justice Act
Act that allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of in the colonies
Lexington and Concord
These battles initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. As a result, British retreated to Boston.
British political party that was the opposition to Whigs. (Conservative)
Ticonderoga and Crown Point
In May 1775, Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured British garrisons and secured priceless store of gunpowder and artillery
American Revolutionary leader (born in England) and pamphleteer. Supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution
Group of Scots-Irish men living in Appalachian hills. Made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764 to protest the lenient way the Quakers treated the Indians, because they wanted protection from Indian attacks.
power of the purse
The ability of colonial legislatures in the 18th century to initiate money bills, specifying the amount to be raised and its uses
Tariff imposed on imports to make them less attractive consumers, protecting domestic industries from foreign competition
Social Contract Theory
Enlightenment idea that government was created as an agreement between social groups as a way of structuring themselves in a mutually beneficial way
Written by Samuel Adams in response to the Townshend Acts. Urged colonists to "maintain the liberties of America"
Declaration of Independence
Document recording the proclamation of the Second Continental Congress asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Battles of Trenton and Princeton
During these battles, Washington crossed Delaware, surprised Hessians at Trenton, and went on to win at Princeton. Gave new hope to Americans after defeats in New York.
"The Fighting Quaker". The number two man in the Continental Army. Led the army on many campaigns against the British forces.
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792)
First Chief Justice of Supreme Court. Played an important role in the establishment of the new government. Involved in drafting of the Constitution and The Federalist Papers.
To involve something, make necessary. Require
Land Ordinance of 1785
Law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
"Father of the Constitution". Author of the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Father of the Federalist party and the fourth President.
Compromise that proposed two houses of Congress: One where a state's population would determine representation, and One where all states were represented equally
People who opposed ratification of the Constitution
17th century English philosopher. Opposed the Divine Right of Kings and asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
System of government in which power is divided between federal and smaller units
enumerated (delegated) powers
Powers specifically given to Congress in the constitution. Included the power to: collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war
American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress
A defeat that can be interpreted as a victory on moral terms. For example, the defeated party could have defended their principles
Olive Branch Petition
Document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain.
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
The Crisis Papers
Written by Thomas Paine. Was a pep talk for the American people during a low point in the Revolutionary War.
1780 battle in North Carolina. Patriots defeated Loyalist militia. Many neutral citizens swung over to patriot side and there was increased dislike of the British
Congress called for states to send delegates to Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation in May 1787. They drafted a new framework that would give greater power to the central government. This document became the Constitution.
An official approval
3rd president of the United States. Designed the township system. Favored limited central government.
Refers to Alexander Hamilton's plan to refinance the national debt. To exchange new government securities for old government securities at their face value despite the fact that many persons holding these securities had purchased them from their original holder for a fraction of their face value
The idea that the Constitution should be interpreted "loosely" or "broadly. What the constitution did not forbid it permitted.
According to the compact theory of the Union, the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution
Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson. Believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution. Pro-French, opposed the National Bank
Alliance of 1778
Agreement that bound the US to defend the French West Indies forever against Britain. "Morally" required America to go to war if the British attacked the West indies, but no American statesman urged such a dangerous policy.
Jay Treaty 1794
Treaty with Britain negotiated in which the United States made major concessions to avert a war over the British seizure of American ships. (British advantage)
Mad Anthony Wayne
Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Left British-made arms on the fields of battle. After, the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to the Ohio Country.
Incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay treaty and other issues
Quartering Act of 1765
Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties
System of choosing delegates to a representative assembly in which citizens vote directly for the delegates who will represent them.
Proclamation Act 1763
Prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain hoped it would prevent violence between Native Americans and colonists
Townshend Acts 1767
Created by Charles Townshend. Tax on glass, white lead, paper, tea, etc. Indirect customs duty payable at American ports. Resistance lead to smuggling, and these ended up being repealed except for Tea Tax.
Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution
American Revolutionary leader and patriot. Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Gave Catholic French Canadians religious freedom and restored the French form of civil law. Nullified many of the Western claims of the coast colonies by extending the boundaries of Quebec to the Ohio River and the Mississippi River.
First Continental Congress
Met in 1774 in response to Intolerable Acts. 55 men from 12 colonies meet in Philadelphia. Called for complete halt in trade with Britain. Important step toward independence.
A military organization formed by Benjamin Franklin which formed fighting units in Pennsylvania and erected two batteries on the Delaware River
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
Second Continental Congress
Political authority that directed the struggle for independence beginning in 1775
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolution. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Americans were forced to withdraw, but British suffered more deaths
Written by Thomas Paine. Criticized monarchies and convinced Americans to break away from Britain.
1763. Indian uprising after French and Indian War.
writs of assistance
Allowed England to search colonists' ships and other private property without an individual warrant
A tariff designed to produce income for the Federal government
Horrible British courts in America that were used to strictly enforce taxes. No juries were allowed, and one was guilty until proven innocent
Rhode Island colonists boarded the HMS Gaspee, a British ship, looted it, then burned and sank it in 1772
British general appointed by King George III to crush the rebel forces
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. Convinced the French to give US support, lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River. Showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat Great Britain.
1783-1805 British military and political leader. Opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution. Led British forces during the American Revolution. Surrendered at Yorktown in 1781
Admiral de Grasse
French admiral. He had a powerful fleet in the West Indies that he offered to Washington to help in an attack on Cornwallis at Yorktown
Treaty of Paris 1783
Franklin, Adams, John Jays were instructed to follow the lead of France. John Jay makes side treaty with England. Independence of the US, end of Loyalist persecution. Colonies still had to repay its debt to England.
System of inheritance in which the eldest son received all of his father's land.
Series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings
Convention held in September 1786 by five states. Issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention. Consider problems of trade and navigation
James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population. Favored larger states
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House.
Series of 85 political papers written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison,and John Jay in support of ratification of the US Constitution
When England did not strictly enforce Parliamentary laws
System consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states
The powers that remain with the states after other powers were delegated to the national government by the Constitution
countryside in arms
Lacking a specific target to bring the force of the elite British military, England floundered to find legitimate and effective targets against the colonists and were unable to end the uprising.
Parliament proposed that the colonies would tax themselves at Parliament's demand. In doing so, Lord North hoped to separate American moderates, whom he believed represented the views of the majority. His offers, however, were too late, and didn't reach American until after the first shots of war had been fired.
After rejecting the Olive Branch Petition, Britain passed this act. It closed the colonies to all overseas trade (naval blockades) and made no concessions to American demands except an offer to pardon repentant rebels.
War where one nation is mainly trying to defend itself from another.
Washington attacked Howe to prevent him from entering Philadelphia. Washington suffers a severe defeat
1781 battle that was a decisive Continental victory in the Southern campaign of the Revolutionary War. Forced the British north towards the Battle of Saratoga
separation of powers
Having power concentrated in three separate parts of the government: legislative, judicial, and executive, all "checking each other".
American general who commanded Washington's artillery. Washington's Secretary of War.
Hamilton's plan for the federal government to take over all debts after Revolutionary War and pay them in full, establishing the United States as a dependable borrower, which helped international loans and prosperity flow to America.
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. Proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. A way to collect various taxes, provide strong and stable national currency.
necessary and proper clause
Clause of the Constitution setting forth the implied powers of Congress. States that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government.
Revolution in France. Challenged America's sovereignty, as Washington had to decide whether to join to cause and risk upsetting Britain or remain neutral. Very bloody and ruthless
Policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
Representative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794 Battle between US and natives, supported by Brits in Ohio. US wins, and natives lose hope of holding onto land
Treaty of Greenville 1795
Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation and $10,000