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ala of the nose

the wing of the nose or outeredge of the nostril

alveolar mucosa

thin, loosely attached mucosa covering the alveolar bone; alveolar process forms the bone that supports the maxillary and the mandibular teeth

alveolar process

the bone that supports the teeth in both arches

angle of the mandible

where the ramus meets the body of the mandible on the outside border

anterior alveolar nerve

one of the two nerves that comes from the infraorbital nerve before it exits through the infraorbital foramen

anterior superior alveolar artery

supplies blood to the anterior teeth

anterior tonsillar pillars

folds of tissue that extend horizontally from the uvual to the base of the tongue

articular disc

also known as meniscus, it is a dense, fibrous connective tissue that is thicker at the ends attached to the condyle

buccal branch

nerves that pass through the buccinator muscle to the cheek where it innervates the buccal mucosa, buccal gingiva, and the buccal of the mandibular molars

buccal mucosa

the inner surface of the cheeks


a muscle of facial expression

circumvallate papilla

the largest papilla, mushroom shaped, are anterior to the sulcus terminalis in a row of eight to ten

common carotid

artery supplying blood to most of the head and neck, divided into internal and external branches


the posterior projection at the top of the rami

condyloid process

the posterior projection at the top of the rami; condyle

coronid process

the anterior projection at the top of the rami

deep facial vein

a tributary of the facial vein which connects the facial vein to the pterygoid plexus of veins

dental arteries

supplies blood to the roots and periodontal ligaments of the molars and premolars


one of the muscles of the floor of the mouth that lifts the hyoid bone and assists in the opening of the mouth

ducts of Bartholin

route to the sublingual caruncles of saliva from the sublingual glands

ducts of Rivinus

route to the mouth of saliva from the sublingual glands

ethmoid bone

bone that forms part of the nose, orbits, and the floor of the cranium

ethmoid sinuses

contained within the thin, spongy ethmoid bone

external auditory meatus

opening for the ear

external carotid artery

supplies blood to the face and oral cavity and has many branches

external jugular vein

vein that drains the superficial veins of the face and neck into the subclavian vein

external oblique ridge

extending from the mental foramen, follows the length of the body of the mandible past the last tooth and up to the ramus

external pterygoid muscles

one of the muscles of mastication, opens jaw by depressing the mandile

extrinsic muscles

assist in the movement and functioning of the tongue; includes genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, and palatoglossus


either the labial surface of the anterior teeth or the buccal surface of the posterior teeth

facial artery

contains six branches that supply blood to the pharynx muscles, soft palate, tonsils, the posterior of the tongue, submandibular gland, muscles of the face, nasal septum, the nose, and eyelids

facial vein

drains the facial structures, beginning near the eye and descending toward the mandible


the space in the back of the oral cavity where food passes into the pharynx

filiform papilla

hair-like projections on the lateral border of the tongue near the base

fimbriated folds

folds of tissue that are lateral to the lingual veins

foliate papillae

slightly raised, vertical folds of tissue on the lateral border of the tongue near the base

Fordyce's spots

sebaceous oil glands near the surface of the epithelium that appear in the oral cavity as round, yellow spots


raised lines of mucosal tissue found in the vestibule areas of the oral cavity

frontal bone

a bone in the human skull that resembles a cockle-shell in form and consists of vertical horizontal portions

fungiform papilla

projections that give the tongue the "strawberry effect"

genial tubercles

small, bony projections surrounding the lingual foramen


extrinsic muscle of the tongue that does most of the work includeing protruding, retracting, and depressing the tongue


one of the muscles of the floor of the mouth that pulls the hyoid bone and the tongue anteriorly


dense, fibrous tissue located between the alveolar mucosa and the teeth and covered with mucous membrane

glenoid fossa

a pit or depression found anterior to the mastoid process is where the mandible articulates with the skull


a cranial nerve that exits the brainstem out from the sides of the medulla

greater palatine artery

travels through the greater palatine foramen to suppy the hard palate and the maxillary lingual gingival

greater palatine foramen

the largest of three openings located in the posterior region of the hard palate

greater palatine nerve

serves the soft palate, hard palate, medial gingival, and mucous membrane as far forward as the anterior teeth


extrinsic tongue muscle that mainly depresses the tongue

hyoid bone

a horseshoe-shaped bone lying at the base of the tongue, all the muscles of the tongue and the floor of the mouth attach to this bone for support


supplies motor fibers to all of the muscles of the tongue, except the palatoglossus muscle

incisive arteries

supplies blood to the roots and periodontal ligaments of the anterior teeth

incisive nerve branch

innervating the anterior teeth and the labial gingiva; a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve

incisive papilla

a raised area of tissue behind the maxillary central incisors

inferior alveolar artery

descends the ramus, enters the mandibular foramen, and bifurcates around the first premolar tooth to form the incisive and the mental arteries

inferior alveolar branch

a main branch of the mandibular nerve

inferior nasal conchae

scroll-like bones on the outside of the nasal cavities consisting of thin, cancellous bone

infraorbital artery

ascends from the maxillary artery and travels anteriorly to the infraorbital foramen, where it supplies the face with blood

infraorbital foramen

located below the orbit on the maxillary bone and the maxillary sinus forming a large cavity above the roots of the maxillary molars

infraorbital nerve

a branch of the maxillary nerve which branches into the middle superior alveolar nerve and the anterior alveolar nerve

internal carotid artery

supplies blood to the brain and eyes

internal jugular vein

vein that receives blood from the cranium, face, and neck and drains into the brachiocephalic vein, then into the superior vena cava, which drains into the heart

internal oblique ridge

(mylohyoid ridge) follows the inside of the ramus and the body of the mandible

internal pterygoid muscles

one of the muscles of mastication that elevates the mandible

intrinsic muscles

located within the tongue and are responsible for shaping the tongue during speech, mastication, and swallowing

labial commissures

corners of the mouth where the upper and lower lips meet

labial mucosa

the inner surface of the lips

labio-mental groove

groove just below the lower lip that separates the lip from the chin

lacrimal bones

small, delicate bones forming part of the corner of the eye; anterior to the ethmoid bone

lesser palatine foramen

two smaller openings located behind the greater palatine foramen in the posterior region of the palate

linea alba

raised, white line on the buccal mucosa that runs parallel to where the teeth meet

lingual branch

nerve that innervates the floor of the mouth, ventral side of the tongue, tastebuds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and the lingual gingiva

lingual foramen

the internal surface at the center of the mandible

lingual frenum

a line of tissue in the middle of the ventral side of the tongue that extends from the tongue to the floor of the mouth

lingual vein

located on either side of the lingual frenum and runs the length of the tongue


the only movable bone of the face

mandibular artery

located behind the ramus of the mandible and branches into five arteries

mandibular foramen

located on the inside of the body of the ramus; the beginning of the internal oblique ridge

mandibular nerve branch

composed of both sensory and motor neurons and is the largest division of the trigeminal nerve

mandibular notch

a depression located between the condyle and the coronoid process; also known as the sigmoid or coronoid notch

masseter muscles

pairs of mastication muscles


process of chewing

mastoid process

the bony projection found on the bottom border of the temporal bone


the largest of the facial bones extending from the floor of each orbit and the floor and exterior walls of the nasal cavity to form the roof of the mouth

maxillary artery

largest of the branches of the external carotid artery;moves anteriorly across the ramus of the mandible, near the condyle, and supplies facial structures

maxillary nerve branch

a sensory nerve that innervates the nose, cheeks, palate, gingival, maxillary teeth, maxillary sinus, tonsils, nasopharynx, and other facial features

maxillary sinus

forms a large cavity above the roots of the maxillary molars

maxillary tuberosity

a rounded area beyond the last posterior maxillary tooth

maxillary vein

drains the pterygoid plexus of veins

mental nerve branch

largest division of the trigeminal nerve

median sulcus

a groove that runs from the base to the tip of the tongue and divides the tongue in half

median suture

the juncture where the two sections of the maxilla bones come together

mental artery

branches off the inferior alveolar artery, then exits the mandibular canal at the mental foramen and supplies the chin and the lower lip

mental foramen

located on the body of the mandible near the apex of the premolars

mental protuberance

the tip of the chin


one of the major muscles of facial expression

middle superior alveolar artery

branches to the maxillary premolar teeth

middle superior alveolar nerve

supplies the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, gingival, mesial buccal root of the first molar, and all the roots of the bicuspids (premolars)


the tissue that lines the inner surface of the lips and cheeks


one of the muscles of the floor of the mouth that forms the floor of the mouth and assists in depressing the mandible and elevating the tongue

mylohyoid artery

branches off the inferior alveolar artery before entering the mandibular canal; supplies the mylohyoid muscle

mylohyoid nerve branch

supplies the mylohyoid muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle

mylohyoid ridge

the internal oblique ridge

nasal bones

form the bridge of the nose

naso-labial groove

also known as the sulcus, the groove from the ala of the nose to the corners of the mouth

nasopalatine nerve

innervates the anterior hard palate, gingival, mucous membrane, and the anterior teeth from the cuspids forward

occipital bone

forms the back and base of the skull containing a large opening, the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord passes

oral vestibule

pocket formed by the soft tissue of the cheeks and gingiva

orbicularis oris

arises from the nasal part of the frontal bone, from the frontal process of the maxilla in the front of the lacrimal groove, and from the anterior surface and borders of a short fibrous band, the medial palpebral ligament

palatine bones

joined at the midline are often referred to as the midian palatine suture

palatine raphe

a slightly raised line extending from the back of the incisive papilla and down the middle of the hard palate

palatine rugae

the ridges that run horizontally across the hard palate behind the incisive papilla

palatine suture

the median suture joining the bones of the palate

palatine tonsils

a depressed area located between the anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars; appear red and inflamed when there is an infection

palatoglossal arches

either of two ridges or folds of mucous membrane passing from the soft palate to the side of the tongue and enclosing the palatoglossus muscle


a muscle of the soft palate that elevates the posterior portion of the tongue and narrows the fauces


one of the muscles of the soft palate that constricts the nasopharyngeal passage and elevates the larynx

palatopharyngeal arches

either of the two ridges or folds of mucous membrane passing from the soft palate to the wall of the pharynx and enclosing the palatopharyngeal muscle


small, raised projection covering the dorsal side of the tongue

parietal bone

forms most of the roof of the skull and the upper half of the sides

parotid duct

also known as Stenson's duct, empties saliva from the parotid gland into the mouth

parotid glands

largest of the salivary glands

parotid papilla

a flap of tissue on the buccal mucosa opposite the maxillary second molar


vertical groove on the midline of the upper lip


a sheet of muscle in the neck that draws down the mandible as wel as the corners of the mouth and the lower lip

posterior superior alveolar artery

supplies the maxillary sinus, maxillary molar teeth, and surrounding gingival with blood

posterior superior alveolar nerve

supplies the gingival, maxillary sinus, cheeks, and maxillary molars with the exception of the mesial buccal root of the first molar

posterior tonsillar pillars

folds of tissue found farther back in the throat


the wings of the sphenoid bone

pterygoid artery

supplies blood to the temporal muscle, masseter muscle, pterygoid muscles, and buccinator muscles

pterygoid plexus of veins

drains the region of the pterygoid muscles into the internal maxillary and anterior facial muscles

pterygopalatine nerve branch

divides into the greater palatine nerve, the lesser palatine nerve, and the naso-palatine nerve


two vertical extensions of the mandible

retromandibular vein

drains the maxillary artery and the superficial temporal arteries

retromolar area

a triangular area located behind the last molar


clear fluid secreted from the salivary glands and mucous glands throughout the mouth

salivary gland

produces saliva to dissolve food, facilitates the process of chewing, and coats food for ease in swallowing; three types include parotid, submandibular, and sublingual

sphenoid bone

one of the bones of the cranium; wedge-shaped bone that goes across the skull anterior to the temporal bones

sphenoid sinuses

contained within the anterior base of the skull behind the orbit of the sphenoid bone

Stenson's duct

a duct that empties saliva from the parotid gland into the mouth; also known as the parotid duct


a muscle located on each side of the neck that assists in elevating the chin


one of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue that retracts the tongue and raises the tip of the tongue


lies in front of and above the posterior belly of the digastric muscle

styloid process

a sharp projection on the under-surface of the temporal bone between the glenoid fossa and the mastoid process

sublingual caruncles

two small, raised folds of tissue located where the lingual frenum attaches to the floor of the mouth

sublingual folds

begins at the caruncles on either side of the frenum and run backward to the base of the tongue

sublingual glands

smallest of glands located on the floor of the mouth; empties saliva either directly into the mouth through the ducts of Rivinus or through the sublingual caruncles by means of the ducts of Bartholin

sublingual sulcus

a horseshoe-shaped groove that follows the curve of the dental arch located to the lateral of the sublingual fold

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