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172 terms

Head and Neck Anatomy

Dentistry
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ala of the nose
the wing of the nose or outeredge of the nostril
alveolar mucosa
thin, loosely attached mucosa covering the alveolar bone; alveolar process forms the bone that supports the maxillary and the mandibular teeth
alveolar process
the bone that supports the teeth in both arches
angle of the mandible
where the ramus meets the body of the mandible on the outside border
anterior alveolar nerve
one of the two nerves that comes from the infraorbital nerve before it exits through the infraorbital foramen
anterior superior alveolar artery
supplies blood to the anterior teeth
anterior tonsillar pillars
folds of tissue that extend horizontally from the uvual to the base of the tongue
articular disc
also known as meniscus, it is a dense, fibrous connective tissue that is thicker at the ends attached to the condyle
buccal branch
nerves that pass through the buccinator muscle to the cheek where it innervates the buccal mucosa, buccal gingiva, and the buccal of the mandibular molars
buccal mucosa
the inner surface of the cheeks
buccinator
a muscle of facial expression
circumvallate papilla
the largest papilla, mushroom shaped, are anterior to the sulcus terminalis in a row of eight to ten
common carotid
artery supplying blood to most of the head and neck, divided into internal and external branches
condyle
the posterior projection at the top of the rami
condyloid process
the posterior projection at the top of the rami; condyle
coronid process
the anterior projection at the top of the rami
deep facial vein
a tributary of the facial vein which connects the facial vein to the pterygoid plexus of veins
dental arteries
supplies blood to the roots and periodontal ligaments of the molars and premolars
digastric
one of the muscles of the floor of the mouth that lifts the hyoid bone and assists in the opening of the mouth
ducts of Bartholin
route to the sublingual caruncles of saliva from the sublingual glands
ducts of Rivinus
route to the mouth of saliva from the sublingual glands
ethmoid bone
bone that forms part of the nose, orbits, and the floor of the cranium
ethmoid sinuses
contained within the thin, spongy ethmoid bone
external auditory meatus
opening for the ear
external carotid artery
supplies blood to the face and oral cavity and has many branches
external jugular vein
vein that drains the superficial veins of the face and neck into the subclavian vein
external oblique ridge
extending from the mental foramen, follows the length of the body of the mandible past the last tooth and up to the ramus
external pterygoid muscles
one of the muscles of mastication, opens jaw by depressing the mandile
extrinsic muscles
assist in the movement and functioning of the tongue; includes genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, and palatoglossus
facial
either the labial surface of the anterior teeth or the buccal surface of the posterior teeth
facial artery
contains six branches that supply blood to the pharynx muscles, soft palate, tonsils, the posterior of the tongue, submandibular gland, muscles of the face, nasal septum, the nose, and eyelids
facial vein
drains the facial structures, beginning near the eye and descending toward the mandible
fauces
the space in the back of the oral cavity where food passes into the pharynx
filiform papilla
hair-like projections on the lateral border of the tongue near the base
fimbriated folds
folds of tissue that are lateral to the lingual veins
foliate papillae
slightly raised, vertical folds of tissue on the lateral border of the tongue near the base
Fordyce's spots
sebaceous oil glands near the surface of the epithelium that appear in the oral cavity as round, yellow spots
frenum
raised lines of mucosal tissue found in the vestibule areas of the oral cavity
frontal bone
a bone in the human skull that resembles a cockle-shell in form and consists of vertical horizontal portions
fungiform papilla
projections that give the tongue the "strawberry effect"
genial tubercles
small, bony projections surrounding the lingual foramen
genioglossus
extrinsic muscle of the tongue that does most of the work includeing protruding, retracting, and depressing the tongue
geniohyloid
one of the muscles of the floor of the mouth that pulls the hyoid bone and the tongue anteriorly
gingival
dense, fibrous tissue located between the alveolar mucosa and the teeth and covered with mucous membrane
glenoid fossa
a pit or depression found anterior to the mastoid process is where the mandible articulates with the skull
glossopharyngeal
a cranial nerve that exits the brainstem out from the sides of the medulla
greater palatine artery
travels through the greater palatine foramen to suppy the hard palate and the maxillary lingual gingival
greater palatine foramen
the largest of three openings located in the posterior region of the hard palate
greater palatine nerve
serves the soft palate, hard palate, medial gingival, and mucous membrane as far forward as the anterior teeth
hyoglossus
extrinsic tongue muscle that mainly depresses the tongue
hyoid bone
a horseshoe-shaped bone lying at the base of the tongue, all the muscles of the tongue and the floor of the mouth attach to this bone for support
hypoglossal
supplies motor fibers to all of the muscles of the tongue, except the palatoglossus muscle
incisive arteries
supplies blood to the roots and periodontal ligaments of the anterior teeth
incisive nerve branch
innervating the anterior teeth and the labial gingiva; a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve
incisive papilla
a raised area of tissue behind the maxillary central incisors
inferior alveolar artery
descends the ramus, enters the mandibular foramen, and bifurcates around the first premolar tooth to form the incisive and the mental arteries
inferior alveolar branch
a main branch of the mandibular nerve
inferior nasal conchae
scroll-like bones on the outside of the nasal cavities consisting of thin, cancellous bone
infraorbital artery
ascends from the maxillary artery and travels anteriorly to the infraorbital foramen, where it supplies the face with blood
infraorbital foramen
located below the orbit on the maxillary bone and the maxillary sinus forming a large cavity above the roots of the maxillary molars
infraorbital nerve
a branch of the maxillary nerve which branches into the middle superior alveolar nerve and the anterior alveolar nerve
internal carotid artery
supplies blood to the brain and eyes
internal jugular vein
vein that receives blood from the cranium, face, and neck and drains into the brachiocephalic vein, then into the superior vena cava, which drains into the heart
internal oblique ridge
(mylohyoid ridge) follows the inside of the ramus and the body of the mandible
internal pterygoid muscles
one of the muscles of mastication that elevates the mandible
intrinsic muscles
located within the tongue and are responsible for shaping the tongue during speech, mastication, and swallowing
labial commissures
corners of the mouth where the upper and lower lips meet
labial mucosa
the inner surface of the lips
labio-mental groove
groove just below the lower lip that separates the lip from the chin
lacrimal bones
small, delicate bones forming part of the corner of the eye; anterior to the ethmoid bone
lesser palatine foramen
two smaller openings located behind the greater palatine foramen in the posterior region of the palate
linea alba
raised, white line on the buccal mucosa that runs parallel to where the teeth meet
lingual branch
nerve that innervates the floor of the mouth, ventral side of the tongue, tastebuds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and the lingual gingiva
lingual foramen
the internal surface at the center of the mandible
lingual frenum
a line of tissue in the middle of the ventral side of the tongue that extends from the tongue to the floor of the mouth
lingual vein
located on either side of the lingual frenum and runs the length of the tongue
mandile
the only movable bone of the face
mandibular artery
located behind the ramus of the mandible and branches into five arteries
mandibular foramen
located on the inside of the body of the ramus; the beginning of the internal oblique ridge
mandibular nerve branch
composed of both sensory and motor neurons and is the largest division of the trigeminal nerve
mandibular notch
a depression located between the condyle and the coronoid process; also known as the sigmoid or coronoid notch
masseter muscles
pairs of mastication muscles
mastication
process of chewing
mastoid process
the bony projection found on the bottom border of the temporal bone
maxilla
the largest of the facial bones extending from the floor of each orbit and the floor and exterior walls of the nasal cavity to form the roof of the mouth
maxillary artery
largest of the branches of the external carotid artery;moves anteriorly across the ramus of the mandible, near the condyle, and supplies facial structures
maxillary nerve branch
a sensory nerve that innervates the nose, cheeks, palate, gingival, maxillary teeth, maxillary sinus, tonsils, nasopharynx, and other facial features
maxillary sinus
forms a large cavity above the roots of the maxillary molars
maxillary tuberosity
a rounded area beyond the last posterior maxillary tooth
maxillary vein
drains the pterygoid plexus of veins
mental nerve branch
largest division of the trigeminal nerve
median sulcus
a groove that runs from the base to the tip of the tongue and divides the tongue in half
median suture
the juncture where the two sections of the maxilla bones come together
mental artery
branches off the inferior alveolar artery, then exits the mandibular canal at the mental foramen and supplies the chin and the lower lip
mental foramen
located on the body of the mandible near the apex of the premolars
mental protuberance
the tip of the chin
mentalis
one of the major muscles of facial expression
middle superior alveolar artery
branches to the maxillary premolar teeth
middle superior alveolar nerve
supplies the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, gingival, mesial buccal root of the first molar, and all the roots of the bicuspids (premolars)
mucosa
the tissue that lines the inner surface of the lips and cheeks
mylohyoid
one of the muscles of the floor of the mouth that forms the floor of the mouth and assists in depressing the mandible and elevating the tongue
mylohyoid artery
branches off the inferior alveolar artery before entering the mandibular canal; supplies the mylohyoid muscle
mylohyoid nerve branch
supplies the mylohyoid muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle
mylohyoid ridge
the internal oblique ridge
nasal bones
form the bridge of the nose
naso-labial groove
also known as the sulcus, the groove from the ala of the nose to the corners of the mouth
nasopalatine nerve
innervates the anterior hard palate, gingival, mucous membrane, and the anterior teeth from the cuspids forward
occipital bone
forms the back and base of the skull containing a large opening, the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord passes
oral vestibule
pocket formed by the soft tissue of the cheeks and gingiva
orbicularis oris
arises from the nasal part of the frontal bone, from the frontal process of the maxilla in the front of the lacrimal groove, and from the anterior surface and borders of a short fibrous band, the medial palpebral ligament
palatine bones
joined at the midline are often referred to as the midian palatine suture
palatine raphe
a slightly raised line extending from the back of the incisive papilla and down the middle of the hard palate
palatine rugae
the ridges that run horizontally across the hard palate behind the incisive papilla
palatine suture
the median suture joining the bones of the palate
palatine tonsils
a depressed area located between the anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars; appear red and inflamed when there is an infection
palatoglossal arches
either of two ridges or folds of mucous membrane passing from the soft palate to the side of the tongue and enclosing the palatoglossus muscle
palatoglossus
a muscle of the soft palate that elevates the posterior portion of the tongue and narrows the fauces
palatopharygeal
one of the muscles of the soft palate that constricts the nasopharyngeal passage and elevates the larynx
palatopharyngeal arches
either of the two ridges or folds of mucous membrane passing from the soft palate to the wall of the pharynx and enclosing the palatopharyngeal muscle
papilla
small, raised projection covering the dorsal side of the tongue
parietal bone
forms most of the roof of the skull and the upper half of the sides
parotid duct
also known as Stenson's duct, empties saliva from the parotid gland into the mouth
parotid glands
largest of the salivary glands
parotid papilla
a flap of tissue on the buccal mucosa opposite the maxillary second molar
philtrum
vertical groove on the midline of the upper lip
platysma
a sheet of muscle in the neck that draws down the mandible as wel as the corners of the mouth and the lower lip
posterior superior alveolar artery
supplies the maxillary sinus, maxillary molar teeth, and surrounding gingival with blood
posterior superior alveolar nerve
supplies the gingival, maxillary sinus, cheeks, and maxillary molars with the exception of the mesial buccal root of the first molar
posterior tonsillar pillars
folds of tissue found farther back in the throat
pterygoid
the wings of the sphenoid bone
pterygoid artery
supplies blood to the temporal muscle, masseter muscle, pterygoid muscles, and buccinator muscles
pterygoid plexus of veins
drains the region of the pterygoid muscles into the internal maxillary and anterior facial muscles
pterygopalatine nerve branch
divides into the greater palatine nerve, the lesser palatine nerve, and the naso-palatine nerve
rami
two vertical extensions of the mandible
retromandibular vein
drains the maxillary artery and the superficial temporal arteries
retromolar area
a triangular area located behind the last molar
saliva
clear fluid secreted from the salivary glands and mucous glands throughout the mouth
salivary gland
produces saliva to dissolve food, facilitates the process of chewing, and coats food for ease in swallowing; three types include parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
sphenoid bone
one of the bones of the cranium; wedge-shaped bone that goes across the skull anterior to the temporal bones
sphenoid sinuses
contained within the anterior base of the skull behind the orbit of the sphenoid bone
Stenson's duct
a duct that empties saliva from the parotid gland into the mouth; also known as the parotid duct
sternocleidomastoid
a muscle located on each side of the neck that assists in elevating the chin
styloglossus
one of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue that retracts the tongue and raises the tip of the tongue
stylohoid
lies in front of and above the posterior belly of the digastric muscle
styloid process
a sharp projection on the under-surface of the temporal bone between the glenoid fossa and the mastoid process
sublingual caruncles
two small, raised folds of tissue located where the lingual frenum attaches to the floor of the mouth
sublingual folds
begins at the caruncles on either side of the frenum and run backward to the base of the tongue
sublingual glands
smallest of glands located on the floor of the mouth; empties saliva either directly into the mouth through the ducts of Rivinus or through the sublingual caruncles by means of the ducts of Bartholin
sublingual sulcus
a horseshoe-shaped groove that follows the curve of the dental arch located to the lateral of the sublingual fold
submandibular glands
the size of a walnut and lie on the inside of the mandible in the posterior area
symphysis
a concave area where two bones of the mandible are fused in the center of the mandible on the external surface
synovial fluid
a thick, sticky fluid found in the joints of bones providing nourishment and lubrication that enables bones to glide over each other without friction
taste buds
oval structures located on the dorsal surface of the tongue that provide our sense of taste
temporal bone
located below each parietal bone forming the lower sides and the base of the skull
temporal muscles
one of the four pairs of muscles of mastication
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
structure made of muscles, bones, and the joints of the jaw; work together closely to make it possible to chew, speak, and swallow without discomfort
torus
excess bone that is occasionally in the middle of the palate
torus mandibularis
excess bone formations that are sometimes under the tongue on the alveolar bone
trapezius
a large neck muscle that moves the head backward and laterally
trigeminal
the largest cranial nerve and most important to dental auxiliaries because it innervates the maxilla and the mandible dividing the semi-lunar ganglion into three branches
tubercle of the lip
the small projection in the middle of the upper lip that sometimes enlarges or thickens
uvula
small, soft structure that hangs from the soft palate above the rest of the tongue
vermillion border
line around the lips
vermillion zone
the reddish portion of the lips
vestibule fornix
the deepest point of the vestibule that forms a U-shaped pocket that is con tinuous throughout the anterior and posterior areas
vomer
a single bone on the inside of the nasal cavity
Wharton's duct
duct that empties saliva into the mouth
zygomatic
one of the four branches of the maxillary nerve branch
zygomatic bones
bones that form the cheeks
zygomatic major
a muscle that controls facial expression drawing the angle of the mouth superiorly and posteriorly
xerostomia
dryness of the mouth caused by saliva reduction
tongue
moves food from the anterior teeth to the posterior teeth and gathers the food before it is swallowed