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62 terms

Medical Terminology Ch7/ Respiratory System I

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Pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
Uvula
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grape-like shape
Larynx
voice box, passageway fro air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
Trachea
windpipe; passageway of air from the larynx to the area of carina where it splits into the right and left bronchus
Bronchioles
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
Alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
Lungs
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
Lobes
subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right
Pleura
membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
Diaphragm
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
Mucous Membrane
thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid fluid
Cilia
hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions
Eupnea
normal breathing
Bradypnea
slow breathing
Tachypnea
fast breathing
Hypopnea
shallow breathing
Hyperpnea
deep breathing
Dyspnea
difficulty breathing
Orthopnea
ability to breath only in an upright position
Apnea
inability to breath
Crackles
poppin sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli
Rales
occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
Wheezes
high pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrow airway
Ronchi
occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
Dysphonia
hoarseness
Epistaxis
nosebleed
Expectoration
coughing up and spitting out material from the lungs
Sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
Hemoptysis
coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs
Hypercapnia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hyperventilation
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypocapnia
Hypoventilation
deficient movement of air in and out o the lungs causing hypercapnia
Hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
Hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
Pulmonary Edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli
Pulmonary Infiltrate
density on an x-ray representing solid material within the air spaces of the lungs, usually indicating inflammatory changes
Rhinorrhea
thin, watery discharge from the nose
Asthma
panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
Bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
Bronchospasm
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
Emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by over expansion of the alveoli with air
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD
Permanet, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
Cystic Fibrosis
inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick viscous mucus that obsructs passageways within the body
Laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
Pneumonia
inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses fungi, or parasites
Pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
Pulmonary Embolism
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
Pulmonary Tuberculosis (Tb)
disease caused by the presence of Myobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercles
Sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
Sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation
Tonsillitis
acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)
analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
Auscultation
to listen: physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with aid of a stethoscope
Percussion
physical exmination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size border or fluid content such as the chest
Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT)
direct and indirect measurements of lung volume and capacities
Spirometry
portion of pulmonary function testing that is a direct measurement of lung volume and capacity
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR)
measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after maximal inspiration
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
Device that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages
Antihistamine
drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
Bronchodilator
drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
Expectorant
drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing