What kind of EKG arrhythima would aortic thromboembolism have? why?
hyperkalemia; deoxygenated tissues release potassium, when reperfused after clot is removed = hyperkalemia
Tall T waves, absent P waves and a sinusoidal appearance to the entire EKG signals?
What is the treatment for hyperkalemia?
bi-carb, insulin, Ca gluconate as a cardioprotectant
What is the failure of transmission at the AV node?
What cardiac conduction dz is seen in pugs?
What is 1st degree AV block and what is its treatment?
increased PR interval, monitor/ no treatment
What is defined as intermittent failure of the AV node to conduct? PR interval increases until QRS is dropped and then another P wave...
2nd degree AV block
Actual Dz of the AV node is the cause of this type of block.
What is third degree AV block?
no AV conduction what so ever
At what heart rate do you start to see junctional escape beats?
What AV block is wrought with junctional escape beats and ventricular escape beats?
What is the emergency treatment for AV block?
take drugs away (digoxin), treat -itis of the heart; isoproternol/dopamine
What increases survival of AV blocked animals the longest?
Intermittent failure of the AV system with random tachycardia and intermittent weakness can be thought to be due to?
sick sinus syndrome
What is atrial standstill?
no atrial activity and a fixed HR
Atrial myocarditis/dystrophy, DCM, electrolyte imbalances and drugs are all causes of this atrial dz.
An increased HR w/ normal EKG is?
Fear, pain, fever, anemia, and thyroid dz all cause this arrhythmia.
What does an SPD look like?
variable P waves buried in the T wave, normal QRS, shortened RR intervals
3 SPD's =?
Why will an SPD have a hypokinetic pulse?
heart hasnt had time to fill
Esmolol and diltiazem are used w/ SPD's to do what?
slow the heart
How does thumping the chest help treat SPD's?
stimulates vagus = increase para. tone = decrease HR
What are the three meds. used to maintain SPD patients?
digoxin, b-blockers, Ca channel blocker
Digoxin mainly works by ______ the heart.
T/F digoxin is a negative ionotrope.
f; it is not
What is a very common arrhythmia w/ DCM?
A normal QRS w/ no p waves and random RR intervals = ?
What does a heart sound like in atrial fib?
boots in a dryer
Atrial fib can cause HR of ?
200 BPM driven by ventricular escape beats
A normal heart rate in atrial fib needs what treatment?
A DCM in A fib is best treated w.?
What is a good negative chronotrope to decrease HR?
What drug is contraindicated w/ cats in a-fib?
What cardiomyopathy is can cause A fib in cats?
Which arrhythmia causes the sawtooth shape of the baseline?
A wide bizzare QRS w/ no p wave that is premature =?
What are the only two types of premature beats?
Superventricular and Ventricular premature depolarization
A VPD originating in the right heart will deflect the QRS ? left heart?
A series of VPD's that are positive and negative means that?
ectopic foci are in both ventricles = worse prognosis
What is a fusion beat?
When a normal QRS and VPD combine and looks like you averaged the QRS and VPD shapes
What is bigeminy?
alternating normals QRS and VPD's
What arrhythmia is common in animals that suddenly die?
What is the R-on-T?
When the heart is re-polarizing (T wave) it tries to initiate a QRS; heart is very sensitive during repolarization and the initiation of the QRS too early can take the heart into v-tach to v-fib to sudden death
German Shepherds = ?
DCM and VPD's
The VPD management is best done by treating?
the underlying cause
if over 10% of beats are VPD's, there are doublets/triplets of VPD's. R on T phenom. are all causes of increased chances of?
What is the best drug of choice for ventricular tachy arrhythmias?
What is the def. of V tach?
> 3 VPD's back to back with a HR > 160-180
T/F treatment of VPD's is very successful at stopping sudden death and eliminates the VPD's.
f; there will still be VPD's and a chance of sudden death
What is the difference between accelerated idioventricular rhythms and v-tach?
the HR = v-tach> 160-189, AIR = 60-80 BPM w/ EKG like v-tach
What is the treatment for AIR?
What is polymorphous v-tach?
torsades de pointes
V-fib is usually?
CPR, electrical cardioversion, and epi. are emergency treatments for?
Describe the EKG of pre-excitation syndrome
a wave after the P wave = the delta wave
What does angiotensin 2 do to the vasculature?
T/F the RAAS system can cause hypertrophy of the heart.
T/F furosemide affects the production of aldoseterone.