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53 terms

Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
Secrete chemicals called hormones into the ECF then hormones enter the bloodstream, circulate throughout body looking for targets/receptors
True Endocrine Organs
Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenals & Pineal
Hormones
Regulate metabolism. Specialized chemical messenger, produced/secreted by endocrine tissue/organ, circulates thru body fluids altering cellular activity via specific receptor
Lipid soluble hormone
Steroids (aldosterone, cortisol, calcitrol, testosterone, estrogen & progesterone), T3T4, NO
Water soluble hormones
Amines (EPI, NE, histamine Seratonin), peptide/protein
Endocrine hormone
pass into blood and act on distant targets
Paracrine hormone
Target close to the site of release
Autocrine hormone
target is the same cell that secretes them
Affects of Hormonal Action
Alters cellular activity, May produce: changing permeability, synthesis of proteins, lipids, or other molecules enzymes, hormones, altering metabolic rxns, stimulating transport of subst in/out of target cell, stimulate mitosis, stimulate contraction of smooth & cardiac muscle
Phosphodiesterase
enzyme that inactivates cAMP
Second Messenger Mechanism acts on what type of hormones?
Water soluble
Direct Gene Activation acts on what type of hormones?
Lipid soluble hormones
cAMP
diffuses thru cell and activates protein kinase
second messenger system
protein kinase is activated by cAMP
First messenger system
hormone binds to receptor
Hormonal Simulation
Secretion from one endocrine organ/tissue target to another causing secretions of other hormones (hormone to hormone)
Humoral Simulation
monitoring of body fluids (hormone to body fluid); PTH, Calcitonin, Calcitriol, Insulin/Glucagon
Hormonal Simulation
LH causing Testosterone to be produced
Neural Simulation
isolated cases, EPI/NE (hormone to neuron)
Adenohypophysis Hormones
hGH, TSH, ACTH (FSH, LH, PRL)
Another name for Anterior Pituitary
Adenohypophysis
Another name for Posterior Pituitary
Neurohypophysis
Identify hormones produced by posterior pituitary
None
Hormones stored/released by neruohypophysis
Oxytocin (OT) & ADH
Types of cells in Thyroid gland
follicular & parafollicular cells
Where is T3T4 produced?
follicular cells of the thyroid gland
Where is calcitonin produced?
Parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
Where is PTH produced?
Parathyroid gland
3 Hormone Categories produced by Adrenal Cortex
Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone), Glucocorticoids (cortisol) & Gonadocorticoids (sex hormones)
Mineralcorticoid
Aldosterone
Glucocorticoid
Cortisol
Gonadocorticoid
sex hormones (estrogens & androgens)
What hormones are produced by Adrenal Medulla?
EPI/NE (80/20)
This is a mixed gland producing both endocrine & exocrine hormones
Pancreas
Where is glucagon produced?
Alpha cells of the pancreas
Where is insulin produced?
Beta cells of the pancreas
Target site for hGH
Skeletal muscle, bone
hGH action
protein anabolism, lipolysis, glycogenolysis
hGH response
Growth, Increase blood glucose
hGH Stimulus
hypoglycemia
What causes dwarfism?
Hyposecrition of hGH in kids
What causes giantism?
Hypersecretion of hGH in kids
What causes Acromegaly?
Hypersecretion of hGH in Adults
Where is TSH produced?
Anterior Pituitary Gland (Andeohypophysis)
What is the target site for TSH?
Follicular cells of the thyroid gland
What is the action of TSH?
Causes follicuar cells of thyroid gland to produce T3-T4
What is the response of TSH?
Increased TSH which causes Increase in BMR
What is the stimulus for TSH?
Decrease in T3T4 which causes decreased BMR
Where is ACTH produced ?
Anterior Pituitary "Adenohypophysis"
What is the target site for ACTH?
Adrenal cortex
What is the action of ACTH?
Causes the Adrenal Cortex to produce cortisol
What is the response of ACTH?
Increases cortisol which causes masked inflammation, inhibits basophils, decreases stress
What is the stimulus for ACTH?
Decreased cortisol, Increased stress, Increased inflammation