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Endocrine System

Secrete chemicals called hormones into the ECF then hormones enter the bloodstream, circulate throughout body looking for targets/receptors

True Endocrine Organs

Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenals & Pineal


Regulate metabolism. Specialized chemical messenger, produced/secreted by endocrine tissue/organ, circulates thru body fluids altering cellular activity via specific receptor

Lipid soluble hormone

Steroids (aldosterone, cortisol, calcitrol, testosterone, estrogen & progesterone), T3T4, NO

Water soluble hormones

Amines (EPI, NE, histamine Seratonin), peptide/protein

Endocrine hormone

pass into blood and act on distant targets

Paracrine hormone

Target close to the site of release

Autocrine hormone

target is the same cell that secretes them

Affects of Hormonal Action

Alters cellular activity, May produce: changing permeability, synthesis of proteins, lipids, or other molecules enzymes, hormones, altering metabolic rxns, stimulating transport of subst in/out of target cell, stimulate mitosis, stimulate contraction of smooth & cardiac muscle


enzyme that inactivates cAMP

Second Messenger Mechanism acts on what type of hormones?

Water soluble

Direct Gene Activation acts on what type of hormones?

Lipid soluble hormones


diffuses thru cell and activates protein kinase

second messenger system

protein kinase is activated by cAMP

First messenger system

hormone binds to receptor

Hormonal Simulation

Secretion from one endocrine organ/tissue target to another causing secretions of other hormones (hormone to hormone)

Humoral Simulation

monitoring of body fluids (hormone to body fluid); PTH, Calcitonin, Calcitriol, Insulin/Glucagon

Hormonal Simulation

LH causing Testosterone to be produced

Neural Simulation

isolated cases, EPI/NE (hormone to neuron)

Adenohypophysis Hormones


Another name for Anterior Pituitary


Another name for Posterior Pituitary


Identify hormones produced by posterior pituitary


Hormones stored/released by neruohypophysis

Oxytocin (OT) & ADH

Types of cells in Thyroid gland

follicular & parafollicular cells

Where is T3T4 produced?

follicular cells of the thyroid gland

Where is calcitonin produced?

Parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland

Where is PTH produced?

Parathyroid gland

3 Hormone Categories produced by Adrenal Cortex

Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone), Glucocorticoids (cortisol) & Gonadocorticoids (sex hormones)






sex hormones (estrogens & androgens)

What hormones are produced by Adrenal Medulla?

EPI/NE (80/20)

This is a mixed gland producing both endocrine & exocrine hormones


Where is glucagon produced?

Alpha cells of the pancreas

Where is insulin produced?

Beta cells of the pancreas

Target site for hGH

Skeletal muscle, bone

hGH action

protein anabolism, lipolysis, glycogenolysis

hGH response

Growth, Increase blood glucose

hGH Stimulus


What causes dwarfism?

Hyposecrition of hGH in kids

What causes giantism?

Hypersecretion of hGH in kids

What causes Acromegaly?

Hypersecretion of hGH in Adults

Where is TSH produced?

Anterior Pituitary Gland (Andeohypophysis)

What is the target site for TSH?

Follicular cells of the thyroid gland

What is the action of TSH?

Causes follicuar cells of thyroid gland to produce T3-T4

What is the response of TSH?

Increased TSH which causes Increase in BMR

What is the stimulus for TSH?

Decrease in T3T4 which causes decreased BMR

Where is ACTH produced ?

Anterior Pituitary "Adenohypophysis"

What is the target site for ACTH?

Adrenal cortex

What is the action of ACTH?

Causes the Adrenal Cortex to produce cortisol

What is the response of ACTH?

Increases cortisol which causes masked inflammation, inhibits basophils, decreases stress

What is the stimulus for ACTH?

Decreased cortisol, Increased stress, Increased inflammation

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