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87 terms

Veins, Fetal Circulation, Lymphatic System, and Endocrine System - Lesson 8 (no pictures)

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Radial vessels
includes a deep vein that drains blood from the hands, lateral side
Ulnar Vessels
includes a deep vein that drains blood from the hands, medial side
Cephalic Vein
superficial vein that merges with the axillary vein on the lateral side of the arm, drains the superficial portion of the hands
Basilic Vein
superficial vein of the arm that merges with the brachial vein to become the axillary vein
Median Cubital Vein
a vein that forms a bridge between the cephalic vein on the medial side in the anterior elbow region and basilica vein; blood can be sampled at this site
Brachial Vein
in the direction of the blood flow, this vessel runs deep on the medial side of the arm and receives blood from the radial and ulnar veins
Axillary Vein
in the direction of the blood flow in the armpit region, this vessel merges with the cephalic vein to become the subclavian vein
Subclavian Vein
extension of the external jugular vein, passes inferior to the clavicle, becomes brachiocephalic vein
External Jugular Vein
paired vessel that drains into subclavian vein, receives blood from scalp, face, neck
Internal Jugular Vein
a large and deep vein that parallels the common carotid artery, receives blood from Meninges and brain
Brachiocephalic Vein
paired vessel that receives blood from the subclavian vein, enters the superior vena cava
Superior Vena Cava
one of the major vessels connected to the right atrium of the heart, drains the upper body
Internal Thoracic Vein
paired vein originating from the subclavian vein descending down the posterior side of the rib cage
Intercostal Vein
collects blood from vertebrae and thoracic wall; drains into azygos vein
Azygos Vein
merges with the superior vena cava in proximity to the right atrium, receives blood from the posterior thoracic region
Anterior tibial vessels
includes a vein that ascends from the foot anterior to the tibia to the posterior knee where it becomes the popliteal vein
Posterior Tibial Vessels
includes a vein that ascends from the foot along the posterior aspect of the tibia where it becomes the popliteal vein
Popliteal Vein
vein that drains the posterior knee region
Femoral Vein
major vein of the thigh that receives blood from the deep femoral and great saphenous vein
Deep Femoral Vein
ascends from the posterior aspect of the leg in the groin area
Great Saphenous Vein
returns blood from the arch of the foot and ascends to the level of the thigh where it empties into the femoral vein
External Iliac Vein
superficial vessel that receives blood from the femoral vein, returns blood to common iliac vein
Internal Iliac Vein
deep branch that drains the buttock region, returns blood to the common iliac vein
Common iliac vein
receives blood from the internal and external iliac veins and returns blood to the inferior vena cava
Inferior Vena Cava
one of two major vessels connected to the right atrium, drains lower body
Lumbar Vein
a group of veins that drain the posterior abdominal wall, vertebral column and spinal cord and return to the inferior vena cava
Gonadal Vein
from the gonad, the right vein drains into the inferior vena cava while the left vein drains into the left renal vein
Renal Vein
paired vessel that drains the kidney, merges with the inferior vena cava
Suprarenal Vein
paired vessel that drains the adrenal gland
Gastric Vein
found on the lesser curvature of the stomach, drains this portion of the stomach
Gastro-omental (gastroepiploic) Vein
located on the greater curvature where it drains nutrients and wastes from the stomach into the splenic and superior mesenteric veins
Splenic Vein
vein that drains the spleen, receives blood from four other veins (inferior mesenteric vein, pancreatic veins, short gastric veins, right gastroepiploic vein)
Inferior Mesenteric Vein
drains the large intestine, flows directly into the splenic vein
Superior Mesenteric Vein
the vein that carries blood from the small and large intestines
Hepatic Portal Vein
receives blood from the capillaries associated with the digestive organs, formed by union of the inferior mesenteric vein, the splenic vein, and the superior mesenteric vein
Hepatic Vein
located on the superior aspect of the liver, drains the portal system and empties into the inferior vena cava near the right atrium
Placenta
major organ in which maternal and fetal blood exchange nutrients, waste products, gasses
Umbilical cord
the elongated structure of the fetus that contains a large vein and two arteries
Umbilical Vein
delivers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus
Umbilical Artery
paired vessels that deliver deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta
Ductus Venosus
branch of the umbilical vein that enters directly into the inferior vena cava, bypassing the portal system of the liver
Foramen Ovale
opening within the interatrial septum that acts to bypass the pulmonary circulation
Ductus Arteriosus
derived from the pulmonary trunk shunting blood directly into the aortic arch thus bypassing the pulmonary circulation
Lymph Nodes
small structures containing lymphoid tissue (phagocytic cells, etc) through which lymph is filtered (located in the neck, armpit, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and groin regions)
Spleen
located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, functions include cleansing the blood of retired old red blood cells
Thymus
located in the chest region inferior to the manubrium, functions in the immune system
Tonsils
lymph tissue located at the back of the throat
Thoracic Duct
located mid-thoracic and ventral to the spinal cord, drains lymph from lower and left upper body into left subclavian vein
Right Lymphatic Duct
drains lymph from the right upper body, transports to the right subclavian vein
Cisterna Chyli
expanded, saclike chamber located at the base of the thoracic duct; receives lymph from the lower abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs
Endocrine Glands
ductless glands that release hormones into the blood stream where they are transported to target tissues
Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
composed of two halves, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis
Infundibulum
attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
front portion hormones secreted include Growth Hormone, Luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Growth Hormone (GH)
regulates body growth and bone elongation, secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
stimulates secretion of sex hormones in both males and females, secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
regulates thyroid gland, secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
regulates the adrenal cortex, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
stimulates maturation of sperm and follicle cells, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
Prolactin (PRL)
stimulates lactation of the breasts, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
stimulates the melanocytes to darken the skin, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
posterior portion of the pituitary yet part of the brain, hormones secreted include oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
Oxytocin
targets the smooth muscles of the uterus causing uterine contraction, milk ejection, secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
targets kidney tubules for water retention by reducing water loss from kidneys, secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
Thyroid Gland
located in neck region anterior to the trachea and inferior to the Adam's apple, secretes Thyroxine and triiodothyronine and calcitonin, largest pure endocrine gland
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
controls rate of growth and energy metabolism, secreted by the thyroid gland
Calcitonin
prevents loss of calcium from bone, decreases blood calcium levels, decreases osteoclast activity, increases osteoblast activity, secreted by the thyroid gland
Parathyroid Gland
paired gland on the posterior side of the thyroid; secretes parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
antagonistic to calcitonin in regulating blood calcium levels, increases blood calcium levels, increases osteoclast activity, decreases osteoblast activity, secreted by the Parathyroid Gland
Pancreas
an irregular structure in the posterior abdomen which secretes digestive enzymes (exocrine) and insulin and glucagon (endocrine)
Glucagon
enhances breakdown of glycogen within the liver, increases blood sugar level, secreted by the pancreas
Insulin
enhances storage of glycogen by liver and muscle cells, decreases blood sugar level, secreted by the pancreas
Adrenal (Suprarenal) Gland
located directly above the kidneys, includes the Cortex and Medulla
Adrenal Cortex
outside portion of the adrenal gland, secretes corticosteroids
Aldosterone
regulates sodium and water eliminated by kidney tubules, secreted by the Adrenal Cortex
Cortisol
anti-inflammatory, anti-stress compound, immune system blocker, secreted by the Adrenal Cortex
Androgens
sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen, secreted by the Adrenal Cortex
Adrenal Medulla
inside portion of the adrenal glands, secretes epinephrine
Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
catecholamine that increases blood pressure and prepares body for stressful, physical activity, fight or flight response, secreted by the Adrenal Medulla
Testes
glands located in the scrotum that produce and secrete testosterone
Testosterone
induces the development of the internal and external organs of sex in the male, secreted by the testes
Ovaries
glands located on each side of the uterus that produce and secrete estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen
induces development and controls the function of the reproductive organs in the female, secreted by the ovaries
Progesterone
involved in maturation of the uterine endometrium, allowing implantation of the fertilized egg, secreted by the ovaries
Pineal Gland (Body)
found in the brain, secretes melatonin which may regulate the sleep-wake cycle
Thymus
located superior to heart, function associated with the immune system (T-lymphocytes and T-cells), most visible in fetus
Placenta
controls maternal exchange of nutrients and wastes and produces HCG, progesterone, and estrogen