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Radial vessels

includes a deep vein that drains blood from the hands, lateral side

Ulnar Vessels

includes a deep vein that drains blood from the hands, medial side

Cephalic Vein

superficial vein that merges with the axillary vein on the lateral side of the arm, drains the superficial portion of the hands

Basilic Vein

superficial vein of the arm that merges with the brachial vein to become the axillary vein

Median Cubital Vein

a vein that forms a bridge between the cephalic vein on the medial side in the anterior elbow region and basilica vein; blood can be sampled at this site

Brachial Vein

in the direction of the blood flow, this vessel runs deep on the medial side of the arm and receives blood from the radial and ulnar veins

Axillary Vein

in the direction of the blood flow in the armpit region, this vessel merges with the cephalic vein to become the subclavian vein

Subclavian Vein

extension of the external jugular vein, passes inferior to the clavicle, becomes brachiocephalic vein

External Jugular Vein

paired vessel that drains into subclavian vein, receives blood from scalp, face, neck

Internal Jugular Vein

a large and deep vein that parallels the common carotid artery, receives blood from Meninges and brain

Brachiocephalic Vein

paired vessel that receives blood from the subclavian vein, enters the superior vena cava

Superior Vena Cava

one of the major vessels connected to the right atrium of the heart, drains the upper body

Internal Thoracic Vein

paired vein originating from the subclavian vein descending down the posterior side of the rib cage

Intercostal Vein

collects blood from vertebrae and thoracic wall; drains into azygos vein

Azygos Vein

merges with the superior vena cava in proximity to the right atrium, receives blood from the posterior thoracic region

Anterior tibial vessels

includes a vein that ascends from the foot anterior to the tibia to the posterior knee where it becomes the popliteal vein

Posterior Tibial Vessels

includes a vein that ascends from the foot along the posterior aspect of the tibia where it becomes the popliteal vein

Popliteal Vein

vein that drains the posterior knee region

Femoral Vein

major vein of the thigh that receives blood from the deep femoral and great saphenous vein

Deep Femoral Vein

ascends from the posterior aspect of the leg in the groin area

Great Saphenous Vein

returns blood from the arch of the foot and ascends to the level of the thigh where it empties into the femoral vein

External Iliac Vein

superficial vessel that receives blood from the femoral vein, returns blood to common iliac vein

Internal Iliac Vein

deep branch that drains the buttock region, returns blood to the common iliac vein

Common iliac vein

receives blood from the internal and external iliac veins and returns blood to the inferior vena cava

Inferior Vena Cava

one of two major vessels connected to the right atrium, drains lower body

Lumbar Vein

a group of veins that drain the posterior abdominal wall, vertebral column and spinal cord and return to the inferior vena cava

Gonadal Vein

from the gonad, the right vein drains into the inferior vena cava while the left vein drains into the left renal vein

Renal Vein

paired vessel that drains the kidney, merges with the inferior vena cava

Suprarenal Vein

paired vessel that drains the adrenal gland

Gastric Vein

found on the lesser curvature of the stomach, drains this portion of the stomach

Gastro-omental (gastroepiploic) Vein

located on the greater curvature where it drains nutrients and wastes from the stomach into the splenic and superior mesenteric veins

Splenic Vein

vein that drains the spleen, receives blood from four other veins (inferior mesenteric vein, pancreatic veins, short gastric veins, right gastroepiploic vein)

Inferior Mesenteric Vein

drains the large intestine, flows directly into the splenic vein

Superior Mesenteric Vein

the vein that carries blood from the small and large intestines

Hepatic Portal Vein

receives blood from the capillaries associated with the digestive organs, formed by union of the inferior mesenteric vein, the splenic vein, and the superior mesenteric vein

Hepatic Vein

located on the superior aspect of the liver, drains the portal system and empties into the inferior vena cava near the right atrium


major organ in which maternal and fetal blood exchange nutrients, waste products, gasses

Umbilical cord

the elongated structure of the fetus that contains a large vein and two arteries

Umbilical Vein

delivers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus

Umbilical Artery

paired vessels that deliver deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta

Ductus Venosus

branch of the umbilical vein that enters directly into the inferior vena cava, bypassing the portal system of the liver

Foramen Ovale

opening within the interatrial septum that acts to bypass the pulmonary circulation

Ductus Arteriosus

derived from the pulmonary trunk shunting blood directly into the aortic arch thus bypassing the pulmonary circulation

Lymph Nodes

small structures containing lymphoid tissue (phagocytic cells, etc) through which lymph is filtered (located in the neck, armpit, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and groin regions)


located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, functions include cleansing the blood of retired old red blood cells


located in the chest region inferior to the manubrium, functions in the immune system


lymph tissue located at the back of the throat

Thoracic Duct

located mid-thoracic and ventral to the spinal cord, drains lymph from lower and left upper body into left subclavian vein

Right Lymphatic Duct

drains lymph from the right upper body, transports to the right subclavian vein

Cisterna Chyli

expanded, saclike chamber located at the base of the thoracic duct; receives lymph from the lower abdomen, pelvis and lower limbs

Endocrine Glands

ductless glands that release hormones into the blood stream where they are transported to target tissues

Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)

composed of two halves, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis


attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus

Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

front portion hormones secreted include Growth Hormone, Luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Growth Hormone (GH)

regulates body growth and bone elongation, secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

stimulates secretion of sex hormones in both males and females, secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

regulates thyroid gland, secreted by the Anterior Pituitary Gland

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

regulates the adrenal cortex, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

stimulates maturation of sperm and follicle cells, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

Prolactin (PRL)

stimulates lactation of the breasts, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

stimulates the melanocytes to darken the skin, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)

posterior portion of the pituitary yet part of the brain, hormones secreted include oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone


targets the smooth muscles of the uterus causing uterine contraction, milk ejection, secreted by the posterior pituitary gland

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

targets kidney tubules for water retention by reducing water loss from kidneys, secreted by the posterior pituitary gland

Thyroid Gland

located in neck region anterior to the trachea and inferior to the Adam's apple, secretes Thyroxine and triiodothyronine and calcitonin, largest pure endocrine gland

Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)

controls rate of growth and energy metabolism, secreted by the thyroid gland


prevents loss of calcium from bone, decreases blood calcium levels, decreases osteoclast activity, increases osteoblast activity, secreted by the thyroid gland

Parathyroid Gland

paired gland on the posterior side of the thyroid; secretes parathyroid hormone

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

antagonistic to calcitonin in regulating blood calcium levels, increases blood calcium levels, increases osteoclast activity, decreases osteoblast activity, secreted by the Parathyroid Gland


an irregular structure in the posterior abdomen which secretes digestive enzymes (exocrine) and insulin and glucagon (endocrine)


enhances breakdown of glycogen within the liver, increases blood sugar level, secreted by the pancreas


enhances storage of glycogen by liver and muscle cells, decreases blood sugar level, secreted by the pancreas

Adrenal (Suprarenal) Gland

located directly above the kidneys, includes the Cortex and Medulla

Adrenal Cortex

outside portion of the adrenal gland, secretes corticosteroids


regulates sodium and water eliminated by kidney tubules, secreted by the Adrenal Cortex


anti-inflammatory, anti-stress compound, immune system blocker, secreted by the Adrenal Cortex


sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen, secreted by the Adrenal Cortex

Adrenal Medulla

inside portion of the adrenal glands, secretes epinephrine

Epinephrine (Adrenaline)

catecholamine that increases blood pressure and prepares body for stressful, physical activity, fight or flight response, secreted by the Adrenal Medulla


glands located in the scrotum that produce and secrete testosterone


induces the development of the internal and external organs of sex in the male, secreted by the testes


glands located on each side of the uterus that produce and secrete estrogen and progesterone


induces development and controls the function of the reproductive organs in the female, secreted by the ovaries


involved in maturation of the uterine endometrium, allowing implantation of the fertilized egg, secreted by the ovaries

Pineal Gland (Body)

found in the brain, secretes melatonin which may regulate the sleep-wake cycle


located superior to heart, function associated with the immune system (T-lymphocytes and T-cells), most visible in fetus


controls maternal exchange of nutrients and wastes and produces HCG, progesterone, and estrogen

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