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APUSH unit 6
Terms in this set (71)
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it.
Encouraged westward migration.
migration, abe lincoln
Invented barbed wire.
This allowed a farmer to protect his land and his crops so that wild herds would not trample the property. 1874
free land, homestead act
Sand Creek Massacre
1864 incident in which Colorado militia killed a camp of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians
Little Big Horn
Battle between Custer's Seventh Cavalry and the Sioux,
Custer's Seventh was decimated
Adam Smith, soux
Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Approximately 300 men, women, and children of the Lakota had been killed and 51 were wounded
Lakota Indians, South Dakota
Apache leader who fought U.S. soldiers to keep his land.
He led a revolt of 4,000 of his people after they were forced to move to a reservation in Arizona.
Apache, beef creek
Dawes Severalty Act
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres,
tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
congress, Henry Dawes
Policy that government should interfere as little as possible in the nation's economy.
Laissez Faire" is French for "leave alone" which means that the government leaves the people alone regarding all economic activities. It is the separation of economy and state.
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages.
They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
market price, profit
Rockefeller and Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish industrialist, who controlled the Iron industry, while John D Rockefeller controlled the oil industry.
Rockefeller participated in questionable business practices, by making his company into a trust, allowing decision making to be centralized. Significant because they were able to monopolize industries.
Rockefeller center, Carnegie hall
combination of a number of firms engaged in the same enterprise between workers and owners
often is used to describe citizens' levels of horizontal trust and network activities in different societies
Stanford and Vanderbilt
An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies.
His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
us Steel, government
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869
American railroad executive, financier, and speculator, an important railroad developer who was one of the most unscrupulous
railroad, Erie canal
Stock watering, Rebates, holding
Watered stock is an asset with an artificially-inflated value. rebate: a partial refund to someone who has paid too much money for tax, rent, or a utility.
holding companies: a company created to buy and possess the shares of other companies, which it then controls.
Edison and Bell
Edison Bell was an English company that was the first distributor and an early manufacturer of gramophones and gramophone records
improving the telephone with his invention in 1878 of the carbon grain "transmitter" (microphone)
Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall
an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State.
had a lasting impact on politics
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties.
He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
printing press, politics
Free Silver Movement
Free, unlimited coinage of free silver, which would cause inflation.
Supported by farmers, Democrats, the Populist Party, Westerners and Southerners
Depression of 1893
Caused by excessive building as well as a continued agricultural depression along with the free coining of silver and the collecting of debts by European banking houses
was the worst economic downturn of the nineteenth century
The Grange Oliver Kelly
Oliver Hudson Kelley is one of the key founders of the National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, a fraternal organization in the United States
The Grange, officially named The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, is a fraternal organization in the United States that encourages families to band together to promote the economic and political well-being of the community and agriculture
The Farmers Alliance was an organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished ca.
changed the way that Americas used agriculture
Coxey's Army was a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey.
marched on Washington, D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time.
Populist Party, Omaha Platform, 1892
left-wing movements of the late nineteenth century that wanted to curtail the power of the corporate and financial establishment.
Omaha Platform suggested a federal loans system so that farmers could get the money they needed.
Tom Watson, James Weaver, Mary Ellen Lease
leaders go the populist party.
adopted a platform calling for free coinage of silver, abolition of national banks, a subtreasury scheme or some similar system, a graduated income tax, plenty of paper money, government ownership of all forms
Cross of Gold Speech
An address given by Bryan, the Democratic presidential nominee during the national convention of the Democratic party, it criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver. His beliefs were popular with debt-ridden farmers.
he believed would bring the nation prosperity
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards, 1888
Penned this utopian novel which predicted the U.S. would become a socialist state in which the government would own and oversee the means of production and would unite all people under moral laws.
sparked an upsurge in interest in socialism. Bellamy avoided that term and referred to his movement as "Nationalism."
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist
helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
nwsa, women rights
American Railway Union
Created by Eugene V. Debs, it was a union created in a short-lived attempt to bring all of the railroad workers into one organization. This union was a precursor of the union movement that followed in the 1930s.
The union was involved in the 1894 Pullman Strike.
westward expanded, union
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab"
labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
union, Carnegie hall
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars
Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
changed voting rights for a long time
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states
created to regulate railroad prices
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting
it was initially misused against labor unions
National Labor Union
The first large-scale U.S. union; founded to organize skilled and unskilled laborers, farmers, and factory workers.
many people wanted to join for protection
Knights of labor: Stephens, Powderly
It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions.
skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.
altered the perspectives forever
times when workers refuse to work until owners improve conditions
boycotts, closed shop
yellow dog contract
a contract between a worker and an employer in which the worker agrees not to remain in or join a union.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers
caused people to congrate
Immigrants who came to the United States during and after the 1880s; most were from southern and eastern Europe.
changed the layout of america
Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police.
The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics
growing gap between the rich & poor
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
created by Herbert Spencer
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists.
This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Salvation Army, YMCA
Two popular Christian based organizations that offered financial/ religious assistance to urban poor
helped the homeless
The writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910); used "realistic fiction".
still studied today
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books
praising the values of hard work
rags to riches
Favoring or advocating progress, change, improvement, or reform, as
opposed to wishing to maintain things as they are, especially in political matters.
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics;
included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
the jungle, the octopus
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
He was dedicated to using his photographic talents to help the less fortunate in New York. His photography helped capture the hardships faced by the poor. His most popular work,
How the Other Half Lives, became a pivotal work that precipitated much needed reforms in the slums of New York. Jacob Riis's photography, taken up to help him document the plight of the poor, made him an important figure
history of documentary photography.
Ida Tarbell, History of the Standard Oil Company
This 1904 book exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company.
Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
Upton Sinclair was a famous novelist and social crusader from California who pioneered the kind of journalism known as "muckraking."
His best-known novel, The Jungle, was an expose of the dangerous working conditions as well as the unsavory products created by the Chicago meat-packing industry of the early twentieth century. The Jungle was influential in obtaining passage of the Pure Food and
Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy.
Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
planned parenthood, birth control
A state-level method of direct legislation
gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
gave rights to people
Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act
1906, authorized Secretary of Agriculture to inspect and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption
all labels on any type of food had to be accurate
Square Deal (3 C's)
Theodore Roosevelt's belief that business and government should work together to manage the economy
the three c's
government, teddy Roosevelt
They split over idealogy. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue.
Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912.
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose...").
His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
woody wilson, progressive party
Election of 1912
Woodrow Wilson wins! When Theodore Roosevelt broke from the Republicans to form the Bull Moose (AKA "Progressive") Party, he hoped to win back the presidency.
His presence split the Republican vote resulting in a win for the Democrat, Wilson. Wilson led an era of Progressive Reform (creating the Federal Reserve for instance)
Republicans in the Senate.
(Industrial Workers of the World) A labor organization for unskilled workers
formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905.
Federal Reserve Act
This act established the Federal System, which established 12 distinct reserve to be controlled by the banks in each district
Federal Reserve board was established to regulate the entire structure; improved public confidence in the banking system.
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, 1913 tariff
reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
This law established an eight-hour day for all employees on trains involved in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime.
It was the first federal law regulating the hours of workers in private companies, and was upheld by the Supreme Court Wilson v. New (1917).
overtime, Supreme Court
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory
led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers
Opposed Booker T. Washington. Wanted social and political integration as well as higher education for 10% of African Americans-
what he called a "Talented Tenth". Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans.
civil rights, political
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families.
It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting.
However, it was initially misused against labor unions
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