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MIT 201 - Ch. 2
Includes Ch. 2 only
Terms in this set (102)
The tangible parts of a computer or digital device, and typically includes support for processing, storage, input, and output.
Carries out the instructions provided by software using specially designed circuitry and a well-defined routine to transform data into useful outputs.
An electronics component, typically composed of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.
Integrated Circuit/Microchips (chips)
Connects tiny transistors and other electronics components on a thin piece of semiconductive material such as silicon.
Chips that provide the functionality behind all types of computers.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
A group of circuits that perform the processing in a computer, typically in one integrated circuit called a microprocessor.
Sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the registers, RAM, and other system components, such as secondary storage, input devices, and output devices.
Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
Contains the millions of circuits created to carry out instructions, such as mathematical and logical operations.
Holds the bytes currently being processed.
A temporary storage area for frequently accessed or recently accessed data; speeds up the operation of the computer; size measured in megabytes (MB).
Speed of the processor's internal clock, which dictates how fast the processor can process data; usually measured in GHz (gigahertz, or billions of pulses per second).
Combines multiple CPU's on one chip to share the workload and speed up processing; can be dual-core, triple-core, etc.
States that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years.
The use of materials with a high dielectric constant (k), such as hafnium and zirconium, that creates smaller transistors than silicon can support.
Processors that use light waves instead of electrical current (fast).
Three dimensions processor on a cube; stacks wafers into 3D arrays speeds processing by allowing it to occur horizontally and vertically simultaneously.
Proposes the manipulation of quantum states to perform computations far faster than is possible on any conventional computer; doesn't use bits, but rather a fundamental unit of information called a quantum bit or qubit.
Displays properties in adherence to the laws of quantum mechanics, which differ radically from the laws of classical physics.
A new technology emerging from nanotechnology and based on DNA; the first "programmable molecular computing machine," composed of enzymes and DNA molecules, can perform 330 trillion operations per second—more than 100,000 times the speed of the fastest PC.
Processing that occurs using more than one processing unit to increase productivity and performance.
Systems that divide processing equally among multiple CPU's.
Massive Parallel Processing
Utilize hundreds or thousands of CPU's working together to serve either many users or a few users processing large data sets.
The primary circuit board of a computer to which all components are connected, including the CPU.
A subsystem on the motherboard that transfers data among system components.
Front Side Bus (FSB)
Connects the CPU to the northbridge, a memory controller hub that controls access to RAM and graphics systems (most important bus).
Connects external devices to the core system components through expansion slots or USB.
Connects ROM and sometimes other input devices to the CPU.
Provides a CPU with an orderly method of processing software instructions.
The ability to maintain data within the system temporarily or permanently.
The hardware that stores and retrieves data.
The material on which the data is stored.
When the storage device is located on the computer or device in use.
When the storage is only accessible through a network.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.
Single In-Line Memory Module (SIMM)/Dual In-Line Memory Module (DIMM)
RAM exists as a set of chips grouped together on a circuit board called this.
Video Memory/Video RAM/VRAM/Graphics Memory
Used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video and graphics images.
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
Processes graphics and takes the load off the CPU.
Read Only Memory (ROM)
Provides permanent storage for data and instructions that do not change, such as firmware.
Programs and data from the computer manufacturer, including the boot process used to start the computer.
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
Stores information about your hardware configuration along with the boot program.
BIOS that has been recorded on a solid-state memory flash chip rather than a ROM chip; stores data permanently, like ROM, but can be updated, or "flashed," with new revisions when they become available.
Uses the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles rather than electrical charges to store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM.
Thin steel platters; when reading data from or writing data onto a disk, the computer can go directly to the desired piece of data by positioning the read/write head over the proper track of the revolving disk.
Used by businesses and organizations that need to store and back up large quantities of data; similar to the kind of tape found in the old audio or video cassettes, it's Mylar film coated with iron oxide particles.
When reading data from or writing data onto a disk, the computer can go directly to the desired piece of data by positioning the read/write head over the proper track of the revolving disk.
Tiny hard drives that can store gigabytes of data on a disk one or two inches in size.
Data is written and read in a specific order from the beginning of the tape to the end.
Storage Area Network (SAN)
Links many storage devices over a network and treats them as one huge disk.
Stores bits by using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective disc (Ex. CD's, DVD's, etc.).
The process of writing to an optical disc.
A medium that can be written to only once.
Indicates that a disc can be rewritten to numerous times just like a hard drive.
Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)
An optical medium that stores up to 700 MB of data; used for music distribution, software distribution, and various forms of data storage.
Digital Video Disc Read-Only Memory (DVD-ROM)
Stores more than 4.7 GB of data in a fashion similar to CD's, except can write and read much smaller pits on the disc surface and can sometimes write to and read from multiple disc layers; unlike a CD, it can store an entire digitized motion picture.
Blu-Ray Disc (BD)
Makes use of the shorter wavelength of blue light to read and write even smaller pits on the optical disc surface for higher capacity; was developed for high-definition movie distribution.
Stores data using solid-state electronics such as transistors, and unlike magnetic and optical media, does not require any moving mechanical parts.
A form of solid-state storage that updates (flashes) the data it holds in large blocks; requires no moving parts to read and write data, and is therefore much faster and much quieter, requires less power, and produces less heat; looks to be the wave of the future, but is very expensive.
A small chip encased in a plastic housing that stores data permanently without the need for power; are small and can be easily modified and reprogrammed, which makes them popular in computers, mobile phones, etc.
Flash Drive/USB Drive/Thumb Drive
A small flash memory module about the size of your thumb or smaller that conveniently plugs into the USB port of a PC or other digital electronics device to provide convenient, portable, high-capacity storage.
Assists in capturing and entering data into a computer system.
Data that can be directly read and understood by humans.
Data that can be read by computer devices.
Source Data Automation
Automating data entry where the data is created, thus ensuring accuracy and timeliness.
General-Purpose Input Device
An input device designed to be used for a wide variety of computing activities.
Alphanumeric data entry devices used on all types of personal computers as well as mobile devices.
Input device used to select objects on a display.
Input device used on some smart phones, tablets, and kiosks; allow the user to select items on the screen by touching them directly with a finger or stylus to select points on the display.
Allows the user to use two or even three fingers on a touch display to manipulate objects on the display.
Special-Purpose Input Device
Designed to provide input for one specific type of activity.
Input device used to control game characters and objects.
Input device resembling a stick shift.
Input device; an inexpensive video camera that has become popular for video chat over the Internet.
Input device that can convert monochrome or color pictures, forms, text, and other images into digital images.
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
Input device that reads special magnetic-ink characters, such as those written on the bottom of checks.
Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)
Input device that reads "bubbled-in" forms commonly used in examinations and polling.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
Input device that reads hand-printed characters.
Point-of-Sale (POS) Devices
Terminals or I/O devices connected to larger systems, with scanners that read codes on retail items and enter the item number into a computer system.
Allows a user to observe the results of computer processing with one or more senses.
Combines video processing and storage onto an expansion card, or integrates them onto the motherboard to manage video images for display.
Provides visual computer output for observation on a monitor or screen.
Picture elements that combine to form an image on a display.
A measure, in width by height, of the number of pixels on the screen.
Websites or apps that can adapt to any size display.
High Definition TV (HDTV)
Uses a resolution that is at least twice that of traditional television displays for sharper, crisper images; uses a widescreen format, which means it uses the same height and width ratio used in movie theaters.
Uses polarization technologies that generally require the viewer to wear special glasses to experience the 3D effect; adds depth and realism to sports, movies, and computer games.
Designed to project presentations from your computer onto a larger screen; are a must-have item for businesspeople that make presentations to large audiences; must be used in a semi-darkened room.
Liquid Crystal Diode (LCD) Display
A thin, flat display that uses liquid crystal placed between two pieces of glass to form characters and graphics images on a backlit screen; is popular for all types of personal computers and televisions.
A thin, flat display that uses plasma gas between two flat panels to excite phosphors and create light; is used primarily for televisions and competes head-to-head with LCD in the market.
Light Emitting Diode (LED) Display
A thin, flat display that utilizes LED's to provide the backlight for the display rather than the fluorescent light used in traditional LCD's; is gaining in popularity as a green technology that uses less energy, does not require the use of mercury in its production, and presents a bright, brilliant image.
Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Display
Has the ability to create the best picture quality of any technology with deep blacks and brilliant colors on a super-thin display.
Electronic Paper (E-Paper)
Doesn't use backlighting like other display technologies, but instead uses pixels made of particles or oils that reflect light to more closely resemble the pages of a book; requiress less energy and is easier to see in outdoor lighting, but is impossible to read in the dark; used for e-book readers like the Kindle.
Provides color images on a flexible film of plastic; provides interesting new display applications, and won't shatter if you drop it.
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Display
Deep, relatively bulky display that uses a large vacuum tube in which an electron gun shoots an electron beam rapidly across a fluorescent screen to create moving images.
Heads Up Display (HUD)
A transparent display that presents data as a layer on top of a normal field of view.
An output device dedicated to providing computer output on paper or three-dimensional output in plastic.
Paper output from a printer.
Pages Printed per Minute (PPM)
The measurement of a printer's speed.
A printer's ability to combine printing capabilities with other useful functions, such as copying and faxing.
Audio and Special Media Output
Output devices designed to provide output to all of the senses.
Output that you can feel.
A computer's capacity to interface with a variety of external devices such as I/O devices, network devices, and storage devices by connecting through ports, slots, and wireless technologies.
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Standardizes computer interfaces around one type of connection.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MIT 201 - Ch. 1
MIT 201 - Ch. 3
MIT 201 - Ch. 4
MIT 201 - Ch. 5
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