Political Science - Chapter 3
Terms in this set (38)
A government of laws , not people, operating on the principle that governmental power must be limited and government officials should be restrained in their exercise of power over individuals
The legal structure of a political system, establishing governmental bodies, granting their powers, determining how their members are selected and prescribing the rules by which they make their decisions. Considered basic or fundamental, a constitution cannot be by ordinary acts of governmental bodies
Agreement among Pilgrim colonists to establish a government, setting the precedent of government by contract among the governed
Documents granted by the English Monarch to individuals, companies, and groups of settlers in the new American colonies, authorizing a degree of self-government, setting the precedent of written contracts defining governmental power
Declaration of Independence
The resolution adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, that the American colonies are to be "free and Independent states." Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, it asserts natural law, inalienable rights, government by contract, and the right of revolution. John Hancock is said to have signed first in large letters to King George III could read it without his glasses
Articles of Confederation
The original framework for the government of the United States, adopted in 1781 and superseded by the US Constitution in 1789. It established a "firm league of friendship" among the states, rather than a "government of the people"
An armed revolt in 1786, led by a Revolutionary War Officer Daniel Shays, protesting the discontent of small farmers over debts and taxes and raising concerns about the ability of the US government under the Articles of Confederation to maintain internal order
A 1786 meeting at Annapolis, Maryland, to discuss interstate commerce, which recommended a larger convention - the Constitutional Convention of 1787
A government in which power is concentrated in the legislature which chooses from among its members a prime minister and cabinet
A constitutional plan that merged elements of Virginia plan and a New Jersey plan into the present arrangement of the US Congress: one house in which each states has an equal number of votes (the Senate) and one house in which states' votes are based on population (the House of Representatives)
A compromise in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 between pre- and slave states in which slaves would be counted as three-fifths of a person for both taxation and representation
Compulsory payments to the government
Tax imposed on imported products (also called a custom duty)
Unified trade are in which all goods and service can be sold or exchanged free from customs or tariffs
National Supremacy Clause
The clause in Article VI of the US Constitution declaring the Constitution and federal laws "the supreme Law of the Land" superior to state laws and constitutions and requiring state judges to be bound thereby
Proposed laws or constitutional amendments submitted tot he voters for their direct approval or rejection, found in state constitutions, but not in the US Constitution
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the three branches of the national government - legislative, executive, and judicial.
Checks and Balances
Constitutional provisions giving each branch of the national government certain checks over the actions of other branches
Power of the US Supreme Court and federal judiciary to declare laws of Congress and the states and actions of the president unconstitutional and therefore legally invalid
Power of legislature to approve or reject decisions made by other bodies. State legislators or state conventions must have the power to ratify constitutional amendments submitted by Congress. The US Senate has the power to ratify treaties made by the president
Supporters of the ratification of the Constitution, who later coalesced into a political party supporting John Adams for president in 1800
Opponents of the ratification of the Constitution, who later coalesced into a political party supporting Thomas Jefferson for president in 1800
Bill of Rights
Written guarantees of basic individual liberties; the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution
Powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution as belonging to the national government
Formal changes in a bill, law, or constitution
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing that equal rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex. Passed by Congress in 1972, the amendment failed to win ratification by three of the necessary three-fourths of the states
The Constitution established a government...
With three branches at the federal level.
Congress under the Articles of Confederation relied on ______ as a major source of funding.
Loans from wealthy patrons.
Which of the following was a principle that Founders had trouble reconciling?
Representation in Congress.
Which of the following economic groups played little role in the development of the Constitution?
Bankers and investors.
The provision in the Constitution that makes state law inferior to federal law is...
The intrastate clause.
It would be accurate to say that the power of judicial review provides that...
The supreme Court may declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
How did the farmers deal with the issue of division between the various states over ratification?
They required nine of thirteen states to ratify in order to enact the Constitution.
The Bill of Rights were included in the new Constitution in order to...
Provide safeguards and protection for individual liberties.
What does Federalist Paper #10 want to answer?
Why the US Constitution is a representative democracy.F
What problem does a representative democracy solve?
Violence among factions.
What is Federalist Paper #51 about?
Separation of power among the 3 branches of and how each branch keeps the others in their place.
What does Madison fear if the government does not have checks and balances?
The government will become too powerful.
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