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Chapter 9 Joints
An articulation is any point at which two bones meet
Bony joints are the most common type of joints
Fibrous joints are joints at which two bones are united by hyaline cartilage
Symphyses are the most common type of fibrous joints
Synovial fluid is rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid, which give it a viscous texture similar to egg white
Bursae are structures associated with fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints.
The forearm acts as a third-class lever during flexion of the elbow.
The shoulder is the only multiaxial ball-and-socket joint in the human body.
Circumduction is limited to ball-and-socket
Hinge joints, such as the tibiofemoral joint, are monaxial.
The wrist can be hyperextended but the elbow cannot.
The coxal joint is a ball-and-socket joint where the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula.
A meniscus is a type of bursa seen in the space between the femur and tibia
The elbow has both pivot and hinge joints.
The shoulder is stabilized mainly by the biceps brachii muscle on the anterior side of the arm.
These are the major categories of joints, except
The joint between costal cartilage 1 and the sternum is a ____________, whereas the other costal cartilages are joined to the sternum by ____________ joints.
Unlike other joints, a ________________ does not join two bones to each other
these are fibrous joints
What do sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmoses have in common?
The radioulnar joint is a
The epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone in a child are bound by a
the replacement of fibers with bone.
Some joints become synostoses by
The joint between L2 and L3 is a
The study of joint structure, function, and dysfunction is called
Coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid are examples of
_______________________ are the least movable joints.
____________________ are the most movable joints.
an interosseous membrane.
These are all anatomical components of a synovial joint, except
an articular cartilage
This image shows the structure of a simple synovial joint. What does "2" represent?
A(n) _________________ is a sac of fluid associated with a synovial joint
the atlanto-occipital joint
Which of these is a first-class lever?
C. Their output force is always greater than the input force.
Which of the following is true of joints that are first-class levers?
the length of the bone.
Range of motion of a joint is normally determined by the following factors except
_______________ joint is a multiaxial joint.
The radioulnar joint is a
The proximal and middle phalanges form ________________ joints
37. The metacarpophalangeal joints at the base of the fingers are ________________ joints
When you walk up the stairs your hip and knee joints _____________ to lift your body weight.
When you hold out your hands with the palms up, ______________ of your wrists will tip your palms toward you.
Raising an arm to one side of the body to stop a taxi is an example of ______________ of the shoulder.
elevation and depression
Normal chewing in humans involves ________________ of the mandible
adduction of the fingers.
Suppose you cup your hands to hold some water. This action would most likely involve
hyperextension of the neck.
A man raises his chin to shave his neck. This action is
If you stand on tiptoes to reach something high, you are performing ______________ at the ankle.
A baseball player winding up for the pitch ______________ the shoulder.
Your shoulders _______________ when you reach to push a revolving door.
flexion and extension
A monoaxial joint like the elbow is capable of which one of the following movements?
raise your hand and place it on the shoulder of a person standing in front of you involves _______________ of the shoulder
hyperextension of the wrist.
Suppose you are looking at the back of your hand and you turn your fingers upward to admire a new ring. A motion employed in this would be
______________ tips the soles medially, like facing each other, and _____________ tips the soles laterally, away from each other.
The temporomandibular joint is a(n) _______________ joint.
A. mandible and temporal bone.
The jaw joint is the articulation of
The rotator cuff tendons enclose the shoulder joint on all sides except _______________, which explains in part the nature of most shoulder dislocations.
the radioulnar ligament.
These are all structures found in the shoulder joint except
The ______________________ bursa does not belong to the glenohumeral joint.
Radial (lateral) and ulnar (medial) collateral ligaments restrict side-to-side movements of the ______________ joint.
distal radioulnar joint
The ________________ is not found in the elbow.
Which is the most stable joint?
Which is the largest and most complex diarthrosis in the body?
The ________________ deepens the socket of the hip joint and helps stabilize the joint.
posterior tibiofibular ligament
The _________________ does not belong to the tibiofemoral joint.
the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament
This image shows an anterior view of the right tibiofemoral joint. What does "5" represent?
the medial meniscus
This image shows an anterior view of the right tibiofemoral joint. What does "3" represent?
the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
What structure in the knee prevents hyperextension?
the tibia, fibula, and talus.
The talocrural joint is a meeting of
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