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Arts and Humanities
PSYC 337 - QUIZ AND ESSAY 1
Terms in this set (20)
The defining spirit or mood of a particular period of history as shown by the ideas and beliefs of the time
The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the ideas of unique individuals
The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the Zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others.
Schools of Thought in Psychology
A group of psychologists who become associated ideologically, and sometimes geographically, with the leader of a movement.
Typically the members of a school of thought share a theoretical or systematic orientation and investigate similar problems.
The emergence of the various schools of thought and their subsequent decline and replacement by others is a striking characteristic of the history of psychology.
Mechanical contraptions built to imitate human movement and actions.
Offered as popular entertainment to intellectual and social aristocrats of the 17th century.
The doctrine that knowledge derives from experience
The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable
An early name for the process psychologists call "learning".
Deriving from Freud's term of "free association", it is actually not a connection between one idea or thought and another, as though each one acts as a stimulus to elicit the next one in a chain.
His term in German was actually meant to mean intrusion or invasion.
This is an example of how Freud's own words were misinterpreted in the act of translation.
What reasons are there for studying history of psychology?
The identity of psychology today has been determined by the history of it:
History provides grounding, rationales for the current context, and related the context for psychology's development.
What are ways in which data for studying history may be lost or distorted?
Data may be lost due to burning documents containing research notes and other manuscripts, or perhaps even being misplaced and even stolen.
It may be distorted due to alterations of the founders (biased autobiographies) given to make them appear more virtuous than they really were, or even misinterpreted translations in their writings across different languages.
What were the contextual forces influencing the history of psychology and how specifically did they influence it?
Largely because of economic forces, increasing opportunities emerged for psychologists to apply their knowledge and techniques to solve real-world problems ("I became a psychologist so I could earn a living). By 1900, there were 3x as many psychologists with doctoral degrees as there were labs to employ them. Many psychologists branched out into other areas unrelated to psychology such as college administrators, state legislators. This marked a fundamental shift of emphasis in American psychology, from experimentation in the academic laboratory to the application of psychology to the issues of teaching and learning.
The experience of American psychologists in aiding the war effort in WW1 and WW2 accelerated the growth of applied psychology by extending it's influence into such areas as personnel selection, psychological testing, clinical psychology, and engineering psychology. War had a personal impact on the ideas of several major theorists, such as Sigmund Freud.
3. Prejudice and Discrimination:
Specifically discrimination by race, religion, and gender. For many years, such prejudice influenced basic issues such as who could become a psychologist and where he or she could find employment. For racial discrimination, Jews faced admissions quotas in colleges and graduate schools, as well as African Americans.
What were the specific types of discrimination that affected people entering the field of psychology?
Race, Gender, and even Religion
What were the contributions of Eleanor Gibson, Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark?
Received rewards from the APA as well as several honorary doctorates and the National Medal of Science for her on perceptual development and learning. Was discriminated (because she was a woman) from applying to Yale for her graduates, and was also barred from attending seminars on Freudian psychology.
Famous for his research on the effects of racial segregation on children. Organized a student protest demonstration against segregation in 1934 and was arrested and charged with disorderly conduct. Was often refused service at restaurants for being black.
Mamie Phipps Clark:
Earned a doctoral degree in Columbia but faced both race and sex discrimination for being a black woman. Was effectively barred from academic jobs and soon worked with Kenneth Clark opening a storefront center to provide psychological services, including testing, to children.
What were some psychology topics the early philosophers discussed? (see powerpoint)
1. Mind, body, and soul
2. Sensation and perception
What were the contributions of empiricism o psychology? (see book)
1. It created an intellectual environment that emphasized use of empirical methods.
Who was Charles Babbage and what did he invent? What could his machine do that could be considered n example of "thinking"?
Charles Babbage developed a fascination with clocks and automatas as a boy, and his lifelong quest was to develop a calculating machine that could perform mathematical operations faster than humans and then print the results.
The original inventor of calculators and computers.
Created automatas, so as to function like humans but be governed by mechanical laws and were totally deterministic in nature. This created the possibility of a thinking machine.
The doctrine that the mind is nonmaterial and the body is a machine.
Describe John Locke's major ideas:
1. How the mind acquires knowledge:
He rejected the existence of innate ideas, as proposed by Descartes, and argued that humans are born without ANY knowledge whatsoever.
2. The blank slate/sheet:
Aristotle had a similar notion to Locke several centuries before, stating that the human mind at birth was a "blank" or "clean slate", on which experiences would write on.
3. Sensation and reflection experiences:
Sensation experiences always appear first. They're a necessary forerunner of reflections because there must be a reservoir of sense impressions for the mind to be able to reflect on.
In reflecting, we recall every past sensory impressions and combine them to form abstractions and other higher-level ideas.
Describe James Mill's major ideas:
1. The mind as a machine:
He applied the doctrine of mechanism (the doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry) to the human mind with a rare directness and comprehensiveness. His stated goal was to destroy the illusion of all subjective or mental activities, and to demonstrate that the mind was nothing more than a machine. It is predictable, and mechanical, like a clock.
2. The mind gaining knowledge from experience:
3. The passive mind:
Mill believed the mind had no creative function because association is a totally automatic, passive process. Association is mechanical, and the resulting ideas are merely the accumulation or sum of the individual mental elements.
Describe John Stuart Mill's major ideas:
1. The active mind:
2. Mental chemistry - creative synthesis:
Creative synthesis: The notion that complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities; the combination of the mental elements creates something greater than or different from the sum of the original elements.
John Stuart Mill, when studying with chemistry, that provided him a different model for his ideas than physics and mechanics that was established in earlier generations, found that mixing elements together to create completely new and different products, coincided with his ideas of creative synthesis, thus creating this approach to the association of ideas "Mental Chemistry".
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