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Child and Families Exam
Terms in this set (39)
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
Trust vs. Mistrust
If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt
Initative v. Guilt
Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
Industry vs. Inferiority
children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
Identity vs. Confusion
teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
Intimacy vs. Isolation
young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
Generativity vs. Stagnation
the middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through a family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
integrity vs despair
when reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
John Piaget's First Stage (0-2)
Children begin experiencing world thorugh senses/actions
They develop stranger anxiety and object permanance
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. complex abstract thoughts still difficult
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Fowler's Faith Development Theory
Pre-Stage: Undifferentiated Faith
Generally children from birth through about 2 years of age.
Have the potential for faith but lack the ability to act on that potential.
Through loving care from parents and other adults in their life young children start to build a lived experience of trust, courage, hope and love.
Stage 1: Intuitive-projective Faith
Generally pre-school aged children.
The cognitive development of children of this age is such that they are unable to think abstractly and are generally unable to see the world from anyone else's perspective.
Faith is not a thought-out set of ideas, but instead a set of impressions that are largely gained from their parents or other significant adults in their lives. In this way children become involved with the rituals of their religious community by experiencing them and learning from those around them.
Stage 2: Mythic-literal Faith
ages 6-12, belief and understanding come from a wider circle of parent substitutes, learn stories of faith, literal interpretation of the bible, understanding on a concrete level, aware that there are different ways of understanding faith
Stage 3: Synthetic-conventional Faith
Generally starts about the age of 13 and goes until around 18. However, some people stay at this stage for their entire life.
Unlike previous stages, people at this stage are able to think abstractly. What were once simple unrelated stories and rituals can now be seen as a more cohesive narrative about values and morals. With abstract thinking comes the ability to see layers of meaning in the stories, rituals and symbols of their faith.
At this stage people start to have the ability to see things from someone else's perspective. This means that they can also imagine what others think about them and their faith.
People at this stage claim their faith as their own instead of just being what their family does. However, the faith that is claimed is usually still the faith of their family.
Issues of religious authority are important to people at this stage. For younger adolescents, that authority still resides mostly with their parents and important adults. For older adolescents and adults in this stage, authority resides with friends and religious community. For all people in this stage, religious authority resides mostly outside of them personally.
Stage 4: Individuative-Reflective Faith
This stage usually starts in late adolescence (18 to 22 years old). However Robert Keeley points out that "people of many generations experience the kind of dissonance that comes with the real questions of faith that one begins to address at this stage of development."
People in this stage start to question their own assumptions around the faith tradition.
Along with questioning their own assumptions about their faith, people at this stage start to question the authority structures of their faith.
This is often the time that someone will leave their religious community if the answers to the questions they are asking are not to their liking.
Greater maturity is gained by rejecting some parts of their faith while affirming other parts. In the end, the person starts to take greater ownership of their own faith journey.
Stage 5: Conjunctive Faith
People do not usually get to this stage until their early thirties.
This stage is when the struggles and questioning of stage four give way to a more comfortable place. Some answers have been found and the person at this stage is comfortable knowing that all the answers might not be easily found.
In this stage, the strong need for individual self-reflection gives way to a sense of the importance of community in faith development.
People at this stage are also much more open to other people's faith perspectives. This is not because they are moving away from their faith but because they have a realization that other people's faiths might inform and deepen their own.
Stage 6: Universalizing Faith
It is a rare person who reaches this stage of faith.
James Fowler describes people at this stage as having "a special grace that makes them seem more lucid, more simple, and yet somehow more fully human than the rest of us."
People at this stage can become important religious teachers because they have the ability to relate to anyone at any stage and from any faith. They are able to relate without condescension but at the same time are able to challenge the assumptions that those of other stages might have.
People at this stage cherish life but also do not hold on to life too tightly. They put their faith in action, challenging the status quo and working to create justice in the world.
Robert Keeley points to people like Gandhi and Mother Teresa as examples of people who have reached this stage.
Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory
Kohlberg's stage of moral development in which rewards and punishments dominate moral thinking
At the conventional level (most adolescents and adults), we begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models.
Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs.
stage of moral development wherein individuals use abstract reasoning to determine right from wrong, often by citing agreed-upon rights (e.g. "the right to live") or personal ethical principles
Models of temperament
•Ratio of active periods to inactive ones
•Regularity of body functions, such as sleep, wakefulness, hunger, and excretion
•Degree to which stimulation from the environment alters behavior-for example, whether crying stops when a toy is offered
Response to a new object, food, or person
•Ease to which child adapts to changes in the environment, such as sleeping or eating in a new place
•Attention span & persistence
•Amount of time devoted to an activity, such as watching a mobile or playing with a toy
•Intensity of reaction
•Energy level of responses, such as laughing, crying, talking, or gross motor activity
•Threshold of Responsiveness
•Intensity of stimulation required to evoke a response
•Quality of mood
•Amount of friendly, joyful behavior as opposed to unpleasant, unfriendly behavior
•feels confident that the attachment figure will be available to meet their needs
•uses the attachment figure as a safe base to explore the environment
•seeks the attachment figure in times of distress (Main, & Cassidy, 1988)
•is easily soothed by the attachment figure when upset
Insecure avoidant attachment
•does not orientate to their attachment figure while investigating the environment
•is physically and emotionally independent of the attachment figure (Behrens, Hesse, & Main, 2007)
•does not seek contact with the attachment figure when distressed.
Insecure ambivalent/resistant attachment
•adopts an ambivalent behavioral style towards the attachment figure
•will commonly exhibit clingy and dependent behavior, but will be rejecting of the attachment figure when they engage in interaction.
•fails to develop any feelings of security from the attachment figure
•exhibits difficulty moving away from the attachment figure to explore novel surroundings
•Is difficult to soothe when distressed and is not comforted by interaction with the attachment figure.
•exhibits behavioral disorganization or disorientation in the form of wandering, confused expressions, freezing, undirected movements, or contradictory (i.e. "unorganized") patterns of interaction with a caregiver
•most of these children have histories of maltreatment
•may exhibit fear of the caregiver
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