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Biological Bases of Behavior
Terms in this set (74)
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology is the application of the principles of biology, to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in human and non-human.
a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord
a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.
a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.
a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
he long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.
a layer of myelin encasing (and insulating) the axons of medullated nerve fibers
he change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
the magnitude or intensity that must be exceeded for a certain reaction, phenomenon, result, or condition to occur or be manifested.
a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.
the absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted.
any of a group of hormones secreted within the brain and nervous system and having a number of physiological functions. They are peptides that activate the body's opiate receptors, causing an analgesic effect.
the network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
Central Nervous System
the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
The nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
a whitish fiber or bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs.
Somatic Nervous system
The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes.
Sympathetic nervous system
originates in the thoracic regions of the spinal cord; opposes physiological effects of the parasympathetic: reduces digestive secretions; speeds the heart; contracts blood vessels
Parasympathetic Nervous System
originates in the brain stem and lower part of the spinal cord; opposes physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system: stimulates digestive secretions; slows the heart; constricts the pupils; dilates blood vessels
an action that is performed as a response to a stimulus and without conscious thought.
he system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity
a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.
either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
the major endocrine gland. A pea-sized body attached to the base of the brain, the pituitary is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.
a region in an organ or tissue that has suffered damage through injury or disease, such as a wound, ulcer, abscess, tumor.
A reading from an electrical recording of brain activity. Very helpful diagnostic tool in locating lesions in the brain. May be useful in diagnosing dementia and epilepsy.
Computerized tomography: a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross-sectional scans along a single axis
using a computerized radiographic technique to examine the metabolic activity in various tissues (especially in the brain)
a form of medical imaging that measures the response of the atomic nuclei of body tissues to high-frequency radio waves when placed in a strong magnetic field, and that produces images of the internal organs.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow.
he central trunk of the mammalian brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, and continuing downward to form the spinal cord.
the inner region of an organ or tissue, especially when it is distinguishable from the outer region or cortex (as in a kidney, an adrenal gland, or hair).
diffuse network of nerve pathways in the brainstem connecting the spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebellum, and mediating the overall level of consciousness.
either of two masses of gray matter lying between the cerebral hemispheres on either side of the third ventricle, relaying sensory information and acting as a center for pain perception.
the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring).
a roughly almond-shaped mass of gray matter inside each cerebral hemisphere, involved with the experiencing of emotions.
a region of the forebrain below the thalamus that coordinates both the autonomic nervous system and the activity of the pituitary, controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic systems, and involved in sleep and emotional activity.
he outer layer of the cerebrum (the cerebral cortex ), composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness.
neurogliacyte: a cell of the neuroglia
each of the paired lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead, including areas concerned with behavior, learning, personality, and voluntary movement.
either of the paired lobes of the brain at the top of the head, including areas concerned with the reception and correlation of sensory information
the rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain
each of the paired lobes of the brain lying beneath the temples, including areas concerned with the understanding of speech.
the part of the cerebral cortex in the brain where the nerve impulses originate that initiate voluntary muscular activity.
The sensory cortex can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be used as an umbrella term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses
a region of the cortex of the brain that connects sensory and motor areas, and that is thought to be concerned with higher mental activities.
loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.
a region of the brain concerned with the production of speech, located in the cortex of the dominant frontal lobe. Damage in this area causes Broca's aphasia, characterized by hesitant and fragmented speech with little grammatical structure.
a region of the brain concerned with the comprehension of language, located in the cortex of the dominant temporal lobe. Damage in this area causes Wernicke's aphasia, characterized by superficially fluent, grammatical speech but an inability to use or understand more than the most basic nouns and verbs.
the quality of being easily shaped or molded.
the growth and development of nervous tissue.
a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
(of a person or animal) having the corpus callosum severed or absent, so as to eliminate the main connection between the two hemispheres of the brain.
the state of being awake and aware of one's surroundings
a peer-reviewed academic journal published four times a year by the Taylor & Francis Group. It publishes empirical and theoretical articles on all topics in the field of cognitive neuroscience
provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways
s the field of study that examines the role of genetics in animal behaviour.
is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings.
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information
a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
The haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism.
form when a single fertilised egg (ovum) splits in two.
develop from two eggs fertilised by two sperm, and are no more alike than individual brothers or sisters (siblings) born at different times.
capable of being inherited; "inheritable traits such as eye color"; "an inheritable title"
eciprocal action or influence.
the branch of genetics concerned with the structure and activity of genetic material at the molecular level
Evolutionary psychology is an approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological traits such as memory, perception, and language from a modern evolutionary perspective.
the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution.
the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes.
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