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31 terms

A Speakers Guidebook C 11-15

STUDY
PLAY
arrangement
deciding how to order speech points into coherent and convincing pattern for your topic and audience
outlining
representing the main points of material in hierarchical format
parallel form
similar grammatical form and style
roman numeral outline
an outline format in which main points are enumerated with roman numerals (I, II, III), supporting points with capital letters (A, B, C), third-level points with arabic numerals (1, 2, 3), and fourth- level points with lowercase letters (a, b, c).
unity
only points that are implied by the purpose and thesis statements
coherence
clarity and logical consistency
balance
appropriate emphasis and weight given to each part of the speech relative to other parts and to the theme
transitions
words, phrases, or sentences that tie speech ideas together
full-sentence transitions
signals to listeners, in the form of declarative sentences, that the speaker is turning to another topic
signposts
conjunctions or phrases that can be used as transitions. ex. first, second
restate forecast form
restating the point just covered and previewing the point to be covered next
rhetorical questions
a question that doesn't invite an actual response but just makes the audience think
preview
transitions that tell the audience what to expect next
preview statement
describes what will be covered in the body of the speech
internal preview
used to alert audience to ensuing main points
internal summary
draws together ideas before proceeding to another speech point
topical pattern of arrangement
pattern of organizing points as subtopics or categories of the speech topic, most freedom of structure
chronological pattern of arrangement
arrangement following the natural sequential order of the main points
spatial pattern of arrangement
arranged in order of physical proximity
causal pattern of arrangement
arrangement that represents cause and effect relationships
problem-solution pattern of arrangement
organizes main points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem to provide justification for a proposed solution
narrative pattern of arrangement
A pattern of organizing speech points so that the speech unfolds as a story, with characters, plot, setting, and vivid imagery.
circular pattern of arrangement
demonstrate how one idea leads to anothre then another all leads back to speech thesis
working outline
A rough draft outline used (and revised continually) throughout the preparation for a speech, a process that helps firm up the thesis statement, establish and organize main points, and develop certain points.
speaking outline
outline that you will use when practicing and actually presenting the speech
sentence outline
outline in which each main and supporting point is stated in sentence form as a declarative sentence
phrase outline
uses partial construction of sentence form of each point, instead of complete sentences
key-word outline
includes only key words for each point; purpose is to trigger the speaker's memory of each point
delivery cues
directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech
ethical appeal
an attempt to persuade audience members by appealing to speaker credibility
call to action
a challenge to see the problem in a new way, change their beliefs about a problem