deciding how to order speech points into coherent and convincing pattern for your topic and audience
roman numeral outline
an outline format in which main points are enumerated with roman numerals (I, II, III), supporting points with capital letters (A, B, C), third-level points with arabic numerals (1, 2, 3), and fourth- level points with lowercase letters (a, b, c).
appropriate emphasis and weight given to each part of the speech relative to other parts and to the theme
signals to listeners, in the form of declarative sentences, that the speaker is turning to another topic
a question that doesn't invite an actual response but just makes the audience think
topical pattern of arrangement
pattern of organizing points as subtopics or categories of the speech topic, most freedom of structure
chronological pattern of arrangement
arrangement following the natural sequential order of the main points
problem-solution pattern of arrangement
organizes main points to demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem to provide justification for a proposed solution
narrative pattern of arrangement
A pattern of organizing speech points so that the speech unfolds as a story, with characters, plot, setting, and vivid imagery.
circular pattern of arrangement
demonstrate how one idea leads to anothre then another all leads back to speech thesis
A rough draft outline used (and revised continually) throughout the preparation for a speech, a process that helps firm up the thesis statement, establish and organize main points, and develop certain points.
outline in which each main and supporting point is stated in sentence form as a declarative sentence
uses partial construction of sentence form of each point, instead of complete sentences
includes only key words for each point; purpose is to trigger the speaker's memory of each point
directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech