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33 terms

Ch's 7,8,9 Urinary, Female and Male Reproductive System

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catheter
tube for injection or removing fluids
creatinine
Nitrogenous waste secreted in urine. Creatinine clearance is a measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) creatinine from the blood.
electrolyte
chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Electrolytes are necessary for functioning of muscles and nerves. The kidneys maintain the proper balance of electrolytes and water in the blood. (K+) and (Na+) are example of electrolytes
erythropoietin (EPO)
hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow.-poietin means a subtance that forms.
filtration
process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter.
glomerular capsule
enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. The glomerular capsule is also known as Bowman capsule and it collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus.
glomerulus (plural: glomeruli)
tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the kidney
kidney
one of two bean-shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region; it filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine.
nephron
combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, re-absorption, and secretion take place in the kidney. It is the functional unit of the kidney, each capable of forming urine by itself. There are about 1 million nephron in a kidney.
reabsorption
process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
renal pelvis
central collecting region in the kidney.
renal tubule
microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
renin
hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels).
urea
major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine.
uric acid
nitrogenous waste excreted in urine.
urination (voiding)
process of expelling urine; also called micturition.
corpus luteum
empty ovarian follicle that secretes progesterone after release of the egg cell; literally means yellow (luteum) body (corpus)
endometrium
inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus.
estrogen
hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum)
gamete
male or female; reproductive cell; sperm cell or ovum.
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating (-tropin) the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
hormone produced by the pituitary gland; promotes ovulation.
menarche
beginning of the first menstrual period and ability to reproduce.
menopause
gradual ending of menstruation.
perineum
in females, the area between the anus and the vagina.
pituitary gland
endrocrine gland at the base of the brain. It produces hormone to stimulate the ovaries.
progesterone
hormone produce by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women.
erectile dysfunction
inability of an adult male to achieve an erection; impotence.
perineum
external region between the anus and the scrotum in the male.
prostate gland
exocrine gland at the base of the male urinary bladder. The prostate secretes the fluid part of semen into the urethra during ejaculation.
sterilization
procedure that removes an individual's ability to produce or release reproductive cells.
testosterone
hormone secreted by the interstitial tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics.