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Comparative Religions Quiz 1
Terms in this set (44)
joins people together
Connects people to the sacred
Bruce Lincoln's definition of religion emphasizes four "domains":
1. Discourse (communication)
Eight characteristics of religion
6. emotional experiences
7. Expression (material)
Eight characteristics of religion (Belief)
Eight characteristics of religion: Community
group dimensions involving shared beliefs
Eight characteristics of religion: myth
Central stories meaningful for religion but not historically true
Eight characteristics of religion: Ritual
Symbolic repeatable actions (Praying)
Eight characteristics of religion: Ethics
rules or guidelines about proper behaviors
Eight characteristics of religion: emotional experiences
feelings of awe, bliss, peace, fear, guilt, shame.
Eight characteristics of religion: expression (material)
things and places manifesting the sacred (art, music, dance, pilgrimage, clothing, ritual objects.
Eight characteristics of religion: Sacred
that which is ultimate; special, set apart from ordinary. (god(s), truth, the Dao, brahman, dharma)
Common place, ordinary secular. (opposite of sacred.
one's journey of self discovery to find a purpose, meaning, or direction in life.
- The product of culture and communities
- follows religious authority, answers questions and is not rational.
- encourages and fosters emotion and intuition, involves itself in ritual
- The work of individuals
- follows reason, answers questions into rational systematic whole.
- encourages logical thinking, does not involve in rituals
What is theology?
The study of god.
- generally refers to an individual studying his/her own religious tradition. (mostly used when talking about western religions).
- Many individuals who study theology do so in order to train to become priests, ministers or religious leaders.
Why are people religious?
- religion serves psychological needs. (after life, fearing death, provides meaning to live)
- religion serves social needs (brings humans together, teaches us to care for others.)
- Humans are religious by nature (because of brain structure, because the sacred exists.)
Relationship between science and religion
1) Enemies: science and religion are competing and not compatible, science can explain everything; religion can explain everything.
2) Strangers: religion begins where science ends. science helps us understand the world naturally; religion examines the underlying causes and purposes of existence (how v. why)
3) Partners: Science and religion are not opposed or separate but are either interrelate and complementary ways to approach life.
god; belief in some sort of personal deity or deities
belief in only one god (islam)
Belief in many gods (Roma religions)
Belief in one primary God and many secondary ones. (Devotional hinduism)
God created the universe but god is not involved now and has no authority over it.
Belief that there is no god.
Taking no position in regards to the supernatural (Zen Buddhism)
there may be a god, but the are not important to the religious goal.
god is everywhere at all times (Wicca)
The position that the existence of god cannot be known because there is no proof.
All is one; the oneness and sacredness of everything (Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism)
Reality is made up of two different principles in conflict. (spirit v. matter. or Good v. Evil)
all is animated, all of nature is filled with spirits. (shinto, indigenous religions)
Human centered religion; Humans are on their own in the universe which is indifferent to them, non theistic. ( confucianism)
when the sacred becomes visible in human form or in special manifestation. (Christianity, Hinduism)
A list of authoritative books or works.
The sacred us located BEYOND the limits of the world and all ordinary reality. (Western Religions)
The sacred is located WITHIN the world and within all ordinary reality. (Eastern Religions)
Five important things to know about religion
1) There are 2 poles within any religious tradition.
2) World Religions do not literally exist
3). religions change, grow, and diversify over time and distance. (all religions begin as cults)
4)The victors record history and religion
5)there is a big difference between ethnic religions and universal religions.
Ethnic religions( Judaism, Hinduism, confucianism)
-Member by birth
-belief is not strictly necessary- ones faith is what one is
-tied to one's culture and ethnic heritage, limited to a particular group of people
- do not actively seek converts, difficult/rare to convert into an ethnic religion
- older than universal religions
Universal Religions (Christianity, Islam, Buddhism)
- one is a voluntary member
- belief is generally a requirement of the faith.
- stresses a universal message meant for all people.
- actively seeks converts and does missionary work.
- it is easy and common to convert into a universal religion.
Western Religions (Originate in the Middle East: Islam, Judaism, Christianity)
- Emphasize transcendence
- are all monotheistic
- God is sacred, above us
- We are not god
Eastern Religions (originate in Asia: Hinduism, Buddhism, etc)
- emphasize immanence
- mainly non theistic or monistic
- the sacred is an inner essence
- the universe and everything in it is sacred
- We are all sacred ("Gods")
Transcendence (Weak sense)
Beyond our five senses and our understandings, beyond our limits of our awareness.
Western Religions: "No one can truly understand god or his actions."
Eastern Religions: "Nothing can be said about brahman because it is beyond words and description."
Immanence (Weak sense)
Refers to the active presence of a transcendent god in the world and in history, especially when acting in human affairs.
Western Religions: "God helps make decisions about my everyday life."
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