21 terms

Biology Test Chapter 13

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biotechnology
the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
recombinant DNA technology
the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
plasmid
a circular DNA molecule that is usually found in bacteria and that can replicate independent of the main chromosome
restriction enzymes
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
genomic library
complete collection of cloned DNA fragments from an organism
nucleic acid probe
radioactively labeled nucleic acid molecule used to tag a particular DNA sequence
genetically modified organism (GMO)
An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means; also known as a transgenic organism.
transgenic
genetically modified organism whose source of new genetic material is a different species
polymerase chain reaction
A method of producing thousands of copies of DNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase
gel electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
genetic markers
particular stretches of DNA that are variable among individuals
DNA fingerprint
biometric identification obtained by examining a person's unique sequence of DNA base pairs
operon
cluster of genes and their control sequences
promoter
control sequence on an operon where RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA
operator
control sequence on an operon that acts as a switch, determining whether or not RNA polymerase can attach to the promoter
repressor
protein that binds to the operator and blocks attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
transcription factor
protein that regulates transcription by binding to promoters or to RNA polymerases
gene expression
transcription and translation of genes into proteins
cellular differentiation
increasing specialization in structure and function of cells during development of a multicellular organism
stem cell
cell with the potential to develop into one of several types of dedifferentiated
homeotic gene
master control gene in many organisms that directs development of body parts