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56 terms

Middle East Review

9th grade World Cultures course
STUDY
PLAY
shah
Title of leader of Safavid empire or early Iran.
hejira
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
hajj
a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
mandate
a territory surrendered after World War I and put under the power of a member of the League of Nations.
caliph
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
scribe
someone employed to make written copies of documents and manuscripts
cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
parable
a simple story that illustrates a moral or religious lesson
ziggurat
a tiered, pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a sumerian temple
oasis
a fertile place in a desert where there is water and vegetation
martyr
a person who dies for their beliefs
Pope
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Crusade
a military expedition by Christians against Muslims who controlled the Holy Land
anti-Semitism
prejudice against Jews
theocracy
government run by religious leaders
Ayatollah Khomeini
Shi'ite who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.
Saddam Hussein
Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran
Yitzak Rabin
Israeli leader who made peace with Palestinians and PLO and was assassinated by fellow Israeli
Anwar Sadat
Egyptian president who made peace with Israel and then was assassinated
intifada
"The Uprising" against Israel by some Palestinians
refugees
people who flee their country because of persecution or danger
calligraphy
the art of beautiful handwriting
occupied territories
Land taken by Israel during 6 days War in1967
messiah
Savior sent by God
Hebrews
Ethnic group that founded the monotheistic faith of Judaism
Oslo Accords
Peace negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis during the 90s which promised limited self-rule to Palestinians
Five Pillars
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
Hittites
brought iron technology to the Middle East
Phoenicians
developed an alphabet that many modern European alphabets are based on (including English)
Babylonians
developed the first written code of laws
Torah
holy book of Judaism
People of the Book
the name for Jews and Christians for whom the Muslims had religious tolerance
oil
most valuable resource in Middle Eastern nations
Kuwait
nation invaded by Iraq which led to the first Persian Gulf War
West Bank, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip
Territories taken over by Israel during the 1967 war.
Suez Canal
French built but British controlled until 1956
Balfour Declaration
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Mustafa Kemal
Ataturk ("father of the turks") wanted to modernize turkey. declared turkey a republic, defeated western occupation, overthrew sultan
Palestine
Region that became partitioned for a Jewish homeland after World War II leading to many wars with neighboring Arab nations.
OPEC
Organization controlling the supply of oil. Refused to sell oil to nations supporting Israel during Arab-Israeli wars.
Fertile Crescent
Region in the Middle East surrounding two major rivers which provide stable agricultural water supply.
PLO
Organization dedicated to freedom and self-rule for Palestinians.
Anatolian Peninsula
In Southwest Asia between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Heart of Ottoman Empire.
Nile Valley
Center of ancient Egyptian empire.
Arabian Peninsula
Birthplace of Islam
Northern Tier
Region of Middle East filled with mountains and plateaus.
Alexander the Great
Conquered Persia and spread Greek culture throughout the Middle East.
Zoroaster
Founder of earliest monotheistic religion. Connected to Persian culture.
Hammurabi
Babylonian king responsible for first written code of laws.
Mosque
Islamic place of worship, generally the central focus of a town.
Veil
Symbol of modesty.
Young Turks
Responsible for Armenian genocide during WWI.
Secular State
A state created apart from religious establishments and in which there is a high degree of separation between religious and political organizations. Turkey is an example.
Aswan Dam
It was built by the French to control the flooding of the Nile River.
Persian Gulf War
Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply.
6 Day War
Egypt, Syria and Jordan fight against Israel, but Israel's wins and gains more occupied territory.