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the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
a territory surrendered after World War I and put under the power of a member of the League of Nations.
Shi'ite who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.
Israeli leader who made peace with Palestinians and PLO and was assassinated by fellow Israeli
Peace negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis during the 90s which promised limited self-rule to Palestinians
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
developed an alphabet that many modern European alphabets are based on (including English)
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Ataturk ("father of the turks") wanted to modernize turkey. declared turkey a republic, defeated western occupation, overthrew sultan
Region that became partitioned for a Jewish homeland after World War II leading to many wars with neighboring Arab nations.
Organization controlling the supply of oil. Refused to sell oil to nations supporting Israel during Arab-Israeli wars.
Region in the Middle East surrounding two major rivers which provide stable agricultural water supply.
In Southwest Asia between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Heart of Ottoman Empire.
A state created apart from religious establishments and in which there is a high degree of separation between religious and political organizations. Turkey is an example.
Persian Gulf War
Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply.
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