American History - Chapter 2
Terms in this set (46)
Identify the demographic shifts and technological innovations of the 15th century that allowed Europeans to explore regions outside their own continent?
Black Death, compasses, hourglasses, astrolabe, quadrants, caravels, and the moveable type
What ideological changes in European culture influenced Europeans ability to perceive the possibility of exploration?
The end of the Reconquista
Why did European exploration expand dramatically in the 15th century?
Trade with Asia began; new desires to get to Asia faster
What Europeans had explored regions outside Europe before 1492?
Africa and Asia
What was the significance of Columbus's voyage?
He was the first to sail west to get to Asia, discovered the New World.
Name the countries of the "East Indies".
India, Indonesia, and China
Define "caravel" & discuss its importance in Portuguese exploration
A fast, sturdy ship
Portuguese sailors sailed around Africa in these
List the consequences of the Portuguese exploration of Africa during the 15th century.
It broke the monopoly of the old Mediterranean trade with the East
Dramatically expanded the world
Established Portuguese trade post in Asia and Africa
Developed new methods of sailing
Explain how competing Spanish and Portuguese claims to the New World were settled.
Treaty of Tordesillas
An imaginary line west of the Canary Islands
West of line = Spain
East of line = Portugal
How did "America" get its name?
German Cartographer, Martin Waldsemuller, named it in honor of Amerigo Vespucci
What was the significance of Magellan's voyage of 1500?
Circumnavigated the globe
Sailed all the way around South America onto the Pacific Ocean.
Define and give examples of the "Colombian Exchange"
Transatlantic trade of goods, people, and ideas
Tobacco, Slaves, and Christianity
Analyze how Hernando Cortes and his small army were able were able to conquer the vast and powerful Mexica Empire
Took Montemuza hostage;used locals to reinforce troops, and to strategize; mass murder of Mexica's
Locate the 2 geographic regions of greatest wealth in Spanish America.
Name the great Portuguese colony in the Western Hemisphere.
Define the "Royal Fifth"
One-fifth of any loot confiscated from a civilization was taken by the crown
Define encomienda, identify its goal, and explain how it worked
Empowers the conquistadors to rule the Indians
To use Indian power but still provide for them
The Indians would work as laboreres, and the Spanish would provide for their needs
Describe the social class hierarchy the developed in new Spain
Peninsulares (People born on the Iberian Peninsula)
Creoles (Born in New World)
Mestizos (Spanish Man + Indian Woman
What was the demographic impact of the European diseases on Native Americans by 1570.
Their population had fallen 90% from when Columbus arrived
Why were Martin Luther's religious ideas considered "dangerous" by defenders of the Catholic Church?
Church officials and monarchs like Charles V believed that just as the church spoke for God, they ruled for God.
Accidentally discovered Brazil while sailing around Africa looking for Indies
Prince Henry the Navigator
School for Navigators
Collected latest techniques in navigation & geography
Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope showing we could get to East
Vasco de Gama
Sailed around India around Africa
Returned with spices worth 60 times cost of trip
First to recognize and popularize North America as new continent
Explored Atlantic Ocean & Caribbean area, Hispanola
Discovered the Pacific Ocean
Ponce de Leon
Discovered Florida looking for the "Fountain of Youth"
Conquered the Aztec Empire & brought much gold to Spain
First to circumnavigate the globe (died in Philippines)
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Explored North American Great Plains & Southwest
looking for gold discovered Mississippi River
Conquered the Inca Empire in Peru & brought much gold to Spain
Lucas Vazquez de Allon
Explored North America coast from North Florida to South Carolina
Founded small non permanent settlement on Georgia Coast
Hernando de Soto
Explored Southeastern North America looking for riches in America
Juan Rodrigues Cabrillo
Explored the California coast
Pedro Menendez de Aviles
Founded St. Augustine, florida
Juan de Ornate
Tried to establish a settlement in northern New Mexico
Explored the Atlantic Coast of North America & sailed into NY Harbor
Discovered & sailed up the St. Lawrence River
Explored New England, New York, eastern Canada, & settlement at Quebec
Explored NY harbor & Hudson River
Discovered Labrabor & explored parts of NE coast of North America
2nd Expedition to circumnavigate the globe & pirated Spanish gold
Looked for NW passage & charted Arctic waters bordering NE Canada