...a. The books of Nevi'im contain Godly messages transmitted through actual Nevuah, prophesy, whereas those in Ketuvim feature messages transmitted through Ruah haKodesh. The essential difference is that a vision of prophesy, whether achieved in sleep or in waking, is totally consuming. A person prophesying does not experience his normal senses, but rather sees or hears the prophesy as if it physically occurs. One who experiences Ruah haKodesh, however, can live, sense, and act normally as he receives Godly wisdom or words of praise. Some prophesies do appear in certain books of Ketuvim as well, but the primary nature of these books is Ruah haKodesh and not prophesy. b. Yehoshua- Yehoshua, Shoftim- Shmuel, Shmuel- Shmuel, Melakhim- Yirmiyahu, Yirmiyahu- Yirmiyahu, Yehezkel- Anshei K'nesset Hag'dolah, Yishayahu- Hizkiyahu and his people, 12- AKH. Tehilim- David and 10 Elders, Mishlei- Hizkiyahu etc., Iyov- Moshe, Shir haShirim- Hizkiyahu etc., Rut- Shmuel, Eikhah- Yirmiyahu, Kohelet- Hizkiyahu etc., Esther- AKH, Daniel- AKH, Ezra- Ezra, DH- Ezra. Radaq's approach seems not to work entirely, because Hizkiyahu, who was not a Navi, penned the book Yishayahu, which is among the Nevi'im. ...1. Gemara Bava Batra 14b-15a
a. One factor given is size and chronology. The smaller nevi'im come last, in the book of Trei Asar. The reason that this book is last is because it includes Hagai, Zechariah, and Malachi, who were the final Nevi'im. More importantly, though, the Nevi'im Aharonim have a thematic order. They begin with Jeremiah, because the end of Kings is about destruction, which segues into Jeremiah which is entirely about destruction. Then comes Ezekiel, which begins with destruction, and ends with comfort. Finally, Isaiah is entirely comfort, so it closes off the section.
Eighth Ikkar of Rambam
a. The text printed in the R. Kappah edition indicates that the Ikkar requires us to believe that the Torah we have today is the exact Torah transmitted to Moshe from God. The original text, however, just mandates that we believe that the Torah which Moshe received came from God, without any reference to the Torah that we have today.
b. He initially presents the core of the belief- namely that God transmitted the Torah directly to Moshe etc. Moshe did not falsify anything but just transcribed etc.
c. His elaboration addresses how every verse, no matter how central or how peripheral, were all given by God to Moshe, and addresses the terrible violations of kefirah committed by one who doesn't believe this, and the special importance of every word in the Torah as created by God's transmission, etc.
d. He cites the verse ויאמר משה בזאת תדעון כי ה' שלחני אליכם לעשות כל המעשים האלה כי לא מלבי.
e. The primary thrust is that if one claims that even the smallest detail of Torah was not from God, but from Moshe himself, then he is an Apikores. Rambam, however, goes further, to declare this person the worst of all kofrim, who totally undermines the special nature of the Torah transmitted to Moshe.
...1. Parallels in Ancient Near Eastern Law
a. Hammurabi Law #209,210 is similar to Exodus 21:22-23. Both relate to the case of one man striking a pregnant woman and causing a miscarriage. There are many differences, though. First of all, the monetary penalty is a standard of ten shekels in Hammurabi's Code, whereas in the Torah it is determined by the woman's husband. Hammurabi's Code is written from the perspective of the girl's father, not her husband. In the Torah, the fight began as a struggle between two men that affected this woman inadvertently, and in Hammurabi's Code there is no such inadvertency. Lastly, in the event of the woman's death, the Torah mandates capital punishment for the killer; Hammurabi requires taking the life of the killer's daughter (reciprocal vicarious punishment).
b. Eshnunna Law #54 is similar to Exodus 21:29, except that Eshnunna mandates a standard rate of silver, whereas the Torah demands that the often-goring ox be put to death, and the owner shall die as well; the owner can escape this fate by paying כפר value).
c. Hammurabi #129 and Numbers 5 both address the fate of a married woman who has been caught lying with another man. The Torah prescribes the complicated process of Sotah, culminating in her drinking the Sotah water to test her for wrongdoing. Hammurabi mandates a different test, of trial by water. In both cases, the husband may turn a blind eye, but in the Torah, if someone else catches her, then the husband no longer has this prerogative. Additionally, in Hammurabi's law, if the husband forgives his wife, then the King may pardon the other man.
d. Hittite Law #1 rules that if someone commits manslaughter in a quarrel, he must make restitution by paying slaves and pledge his land as security. The Torah (Exodus 21:12) says that such a person must die.
e. Hittite Law # 44 rules that if one kills another by pushing him into fire, he shall give his son. The Torah never allows such vicarious punishment, but rules unequivocally in all cases of murder and manslaughter (as in Exodus 21:12 above) that the killer must die.